Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function 8th edition Saladin Test Bank


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  • Published: 2017
  • ISBN-10: 1259277720
  • ISBN-13: 978-1259277726


anatomy and physiology saladin 8th edition test bank


Chapter 01 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

True / False Questions

Sometimes anatomical terms come from origins that do not lend any insight into their meaning.

True    False



2. Feeling for swollen lymph nodes is an example of auscultation.

True    False


3. We can see through bones with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

True    False


4. Histology is the study of structures that can be observed without a magnifying lens.

True    False


5. Cells were first named by microscopist Robert Hooke.

True    False


6. All functions of the body can be interpreted as the effects of cellular activity.

True    False


7. The hypothetico-deductive method is common in physiology, whereas the inductive method is common in anatomy.

True    False


8. An individual scientific fact has more information than a theory.

True    False


9. Evolutionary (Darwinian) medicine traces some of our diseases to our evolutionary past.

True    False


10. The terms development and evolution have the same meaning in physiology.

True    False


11. Organs are made of tissues.

True    False


12. A molecule of water is more complex than a mitochondrion (organelle).

True    False


13. Homeostasis and occupying space are both unique characteristics of living things.

True    False


14. Positive feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body’s physiological variables gets out of balance.

True    False


15. Negative feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tends to produce rapid change in the body.

True    False


16. Anatomists around the world adhere to a lexicon of standard international terms, which stipulates both Latin names and accepted English equivalents.

True    False



Multiple Choice Questions

17. Feeling structures with your fingertips is called _________, whereas tapping on the body and listening for sounds of abnormalities is called ____________.

A. palpation; auscultation


B. auscultation; percussion


C. percussion; auscultation


D. palpation; percussion


E. percussion; palpation


18. Known as “the father of modern anatomy,” __________ was the first to publish accurate drawings of the body.

A. Vesalius


B. Maimonides


C. Harvey


D. Aristotle


E. van Leeuwenhoek


19. The most influential medical textbook of the ancient era was written by __________.

A. Hippocrates


B. Aristotle


C. Galen


D. Vesalius


E. Avicenna


20. Which of these is the best imaging technique for routinely examining the anatomical development of a fetus?

A. Auscultation


B. PET scan




D. Sonography


E. Radiography


21. The terms physics, physiology, and physician come from a term that __________ proposed to distinguish natural causes from supernatural causes.

A. Hippocrates


B. Plato


C. Schwann


D. Aristotle


E. Avicenna


22. Who was a physician to the Roman gladiators, learned by dissection of animals, and saw science as a method of discovery?

A. Hippocrates


B. Plato


C. Schwann


D. Aristotle


E. Galen


23. The process of using numerous observations to develop general principles and predictions about a specific subject is called __________.

A. experimental design


B. the deductive method


C. the inductive method


D. a hypothesis


E. statistical testing


24. Most people think that ulcers are caused by psychological stress. It was discovered that an acid-resistant bacterium, Heliobacter pylori, lives in the lining of the stomach. If these bacteria cause ulcers, then treatment with an antibiotic should reduce ulcers. This line of investigation is an example of __________.

A. hypothetical reasoning


B. hypothetico-deductive reasoning


C. the inductive method


D. experimental design


E. statistical analysis


25. An educated speculation or a possible answer to a question is called a(n) __________.

A. scientific method


B. theory


C. law


D. hypothesis


E. fact


26. The use of controls and statistical testing are two aspects of experimental design that help to ensure __________.

A. an adequate sample size


B. objective and reliable results


C. experimental bias


D. psychosomatic effects


E. treatment groups


27. ______________ is a process that submits a scientist’s ideas to the critical judgment of other specialists in the field before the research is funded or published.

A. Adjudication


B. Statistical testing


C. Falsification


D. Peer review


E. Hypothetico-deductive testing


28. Which of the following would contain the greatest amount of information that scientists consider to be true to the best of their knowledge?

A. A fact


B. A law of nature


C. A hypothesis


D. An equation


E. A theory


29. The study of the structure and function of cells is called ___________.

A. cytology


B. gross anatomy


C. exploratory physiology


D. comparative physiology


E. radiology


30. ________________ established a code of ethics for physicians. He is considered the “father of medicine.”

A. Aristotle


B. Hippocrates


C. Galen


D. Vesalius


E. Hooke


31. A new drug apparently increases short-term memory. Students were divided randomly into two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group was given the memory pill once a day for the semester, and the other group was given a same-looking pill, but it was just sugar. The sugar pill is termed a(n) __________.

A. controlled pill


B. placebo


C. treatment pill


D. variable


E. effective dose


32. Two groups of people were tested to determine whether garlic lowers blood cholesterol levels. One group was given 800 mg of garlic powder daily for four months and exhibited an average 12% reduction in the blood cholesterol. The other group was not given any garlic and after four months averaged a 3% reduction in cholesterol. The group that was not given the garlic was the __________ group.

A. peer


B. test


C. treatment


D. control


E. double-blind


33. A change in the genetic composition of a population over time is called __________.

A. mutation


B. natural selection


C. selection pressure


D. evolution


E. adaptation


34. The constant appearance of new strains of influenza virus is an example of __________.

A. a model


B. evolution


C. selection pressure


D. survivorship


E. success


35. The principal theory of how evolution works is called __________.

A. natural pressure


B. selective pressure


C. darwinian pressure


D. natural adaptation


E. natural selection


36. Which of the following was an adaptation that evolved in connection with human upright walking?

A. Hair


B. Fully opposable thumbs


C. Stereoscopic vision


D. Color vision


E. Spinal and pelvic anatomy


37. Stereoscopic vision provides __________.

A. opposable perception


B. color perception


C. depth perception


D. bipedalism


E. opposition of thumbs


38. A human is born before his/her nervous system has matured. This is traceable to __________.

A. their inability to regulate body temperature


B. skeletal adaptations to bipedalism


C. the arboreal habits of early primates


D. the conditions of modern civilization


E. the diet of early species of Homo


39. The species of modern humans is called _________.

A. Homo erectus


B. Homo sapiens


C. Homo habilis


D. early Homo


E. Australopithecus


40. Most primates are ________________, meaning they live in trees.

A. prehensile


B. bipedal


C. cursorial


D. troglodytic


E. arboreal


41. An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell.

A. organ system; organs


B. organ system; organelles


C. organ; organelles


D. organ; molecules


E. organelle; molecules


42. Which of the following lists levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest?

A. Organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system


B. Organ system, organ, cell, tissue, organelle


C. Organ system, organelle, tissue, cell, organ


D. Organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle


E. Organ, organ system, tissue, cell, organelle


43. Which of the following lists examples of body structures from the simplest to the most complex?

A. Mitochondrion, connective tissue, protein, stomach, adipocyte (fat cell)


B. Protein, mitochondrion, adipocyte (fat cell), connective tissue, stomach


C. Mitochondrion, connective tissue, stomach, protein, adipocyte (fat cell)


D. Protein, adipocyte (fat cell), stomach, connective tissue, mitochondrion


E. Protein, stomach, connective tissue, adipocyte (fat cell), mitochondrion


44. A(n) _____________ is a group of similar cells and their intercellular materials in a discrete region of an organ performing a specific function.

A. macromolecule


B. organ system


C. organelle


D. organism


E. tissue


45. Taking apart a clock to see how it works is similar to ____________ thinking about human physiology.

A. comparative


B. evolutionary


C. holistic


D. inductive


E. reductionist


46. _______________ approaches understanding of the human body by studying the interactions of its parts.

A. Naturalism


B. Reductionism


C. Vitalism


D. Holism


E. Rationalism


47. _____________ is the view that not everything about an organism can be understood or predicted from the knowledge of its components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

A. Naturalism


B. Reductionism


C. Holism


D. Materialism


E. Science


48. The fact that most of us have five lumbar vertebrae, but some people have six and some have four, is an example of ____________ variation among organisms.

A. cellular


B. holistic


C. physiological


D. anatomical


E. reductionist


49. A surgeon needs to be familiar with different versions of anatomy. This is because of the phenomenon of _____.

A. cellular adaptation


B. holistic medicine


C. physiological variation


D. anatomical variation


50. A hemoglobin level of 12g/dL is normal for an adult female, but low for an adult male. This is an example of _____.

A. cellular adaptation


B. holistic medicine


C. physiological variation


D. anatomical variation


51. _________________ are the simplest body structures considered alive.

A. Organ systems


B. Organs


C. Cells


D. Organelles


E. Molecules


52. All of the following are human organ systems except ___________.

A. skeletal


B. endocrine


C. epidermal


D. reproductive


E. lymphatic


53. All of the following are organs except __________.

A. teeth


B. the skin


C. nails


D. the liver


E. the digestive system


54. Metabolism is the sum of all __________ __________ change.

A. external; physical


B. external; chemical


C. internal; chemical


D. internal; physical


E. stimulated; movement


55. We live in an ever-changing environment outside of our body, yet our internal conditions remain relatively stable. This is called __________.

A. homeostasis


B. metastasis


C. responsiveness


D. adaptation


E. evolution


56. During exercise, one generates excess heat and the body temperature rises. As a response, blood vessels dilate in the skin, warm blood flows closer to the body surface, and heat is lost. This is an example of __________.

A. negative feedback


B. positive feedback


C. dynamic equilibrium


D. integration control


E. set point adjustment


57. When a woman is giving birth, the head of the baby pushes against her cervix and stimulates the release of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin travels in the blood and stimulates the uterus to contract. Labor contractions become more and more intense until the baby is expelled. This is an example of __________.

A. negative feedback


B. positive feedback


C. dynamic equilibrium


D. integration control


E. set point adjustment


58. Which of the following is most likely to cause disease?

A. Positive feedback


B. Negative feedback


C. Homeostasis


D. Equilibrium


E. Irritability


59. Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates the pancreas to release the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates the uptake of glucose by body cells from the bloodstream, thus reducing blood glucose concentration. This is an example of _________.

A. negative feedback


B. positive feedback


C. dynamic equilibrium


D. integration control


E. set point adjustment


60. Which of the following is not an aspect that could result in physiological variation?

A. Age


B. Gender


C. Environment


D. Physical activity


E. These are all aspects that can cause physiological variation.


61. The change in size of the bone marrow (where blood cells are produced) as an infant matures is an example of __________, whereas the transformation of blood stem cells into white blood cells is an example of __________.

A. development; differentiation


B. growth; development


C. growth; differentiation


D. differentiation; growth


E. differentiation; development


62. Three common components of a feedback loop are _________, __________, and __________.

A. stimulus; integrating (control) center; organ system


B. stimulus; receptor; integrating (control) center


C. receptor; integrating (control) center; effector


D. receptor; organ; organ system


E. receptor; integrating (control) center; organ system


63. Negative feedback loops are __________.

A. homeostatic mechanisms


B. not homeostatic mechanisms


C. associated with “vicious circles”


D. self-amplifying cycles


E. usually harmful


64. The prefix hypo- means _______________, whereas hyper- means _____________.

A. front; back


B. right; left


C. inside; outside


D. clear; dark


E. below; above


65. The term fallopian tube (uterine tube) is an example of __________.

A. a Latin root used in medical terminology


B. the use of prefixes to name an anatomical structure


C. the use of suffixes to name an anatomical structure


D. an eponym


E. an acronym


66. Hypercalcemia means _________.

A. elevated calcium levels in blood


B. lowered calcium levels in bone


C. elevated sodium levels in blood


D. elevated calcium levels in bone


E. lowered calcium levels in the blood


67. The plural of axilla (armpit) is ____________, whereas the plural of appendix is ___________.

A. axillae; appendices


B. axillides; appendages


C. axillies; appendi


D. axilli; appendices


68. The plural of villus (hair) is ____________, whereas the plural of diagnosis is ____________.

A. villuses; diagnosises


B. villi; diagnoses


C. villus; diagnosis


D. villi; diagnosis


E. villuses; diagnosis


69. The lexicon of standard international anatomical terms is __________.

A. called Nomina Anatomica (NA)


B. formed from thousands of French word roots


C. called Terminologia Anatomica (TA)


D. formed from thousands of English word roots


E. formed from thousands of Italian word roots


70. The study of normal body structures is called __________.

A. biology


B. pathology


C. anatomy


D. microscopy


E. physiology


71. The study of how hormones function is called __________.

A. neuroanatomy


B. neurophysiology


C. endocrinology


D. histology


E. pathophysiology


72. The study of mechanism of disease is called __________.

A. histology


B. neuroanatomy


C. pathophysiology


D. endocrinology


E. neurophysiology


73. The study of how the body functions is called __________.

A. anatomy


B. chemistry


C. physiology


D. neuroanatomy


E. histology


74. A physiological __________ is a difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical pressure, temperature, or other variables between one point and another.

A. membrane


B. gradient


C. imbalance


D. feedback loop


E. barrier


75. Chemicals in a solution can move down a concentration gradient. This means the chemical will move from the area of __________ concentration to the area of _________ concentration.

A. low; high


B. high; high


C. low; low


D. equal; equal


E. high; low


76. Which of the following is not an example of a physiological gradient?

A. Electrical


B. Tissue


C. Pressure


D. Thermal


E. Concentration


77. DNA is an example of an __________, whereas PET scan is an example of an _________.

A. eponym; abbreviation


B. acronym; eponym


C. eponym; acronym


D. abbreviation; acronym


E. acronym; abbreviation


78. Precise spelling is important in anatomy because __________.

A. there are many similar terms in anatomy that refer to different structures


B. it’s easier to remember acronyms when spelled correctly


C. there are many different ways to spell certain terms


D. eponyms are difficult to memorize


E. it’s important to practice language skills


79. The ileum is ____________, whereas the ilium is __________.


A. a muscle; a bone


B. a bone; a muscle


C. part of the hip bone; part of the small intestine


D. a bone in the wrist; a muscle of the back


E. part of the small intestine; part of the hip bone


80. Ultrastructure refers to the detailed structure to the level of the _____.


A. molecule


B. cell


C. organelle


D. tissue


81. What type of gradient cause the movement of ions due to both charge and concentration differences?


A. pressure gradient


B. electrochemical gradient


C. thermal gradient


D. concentration gradient


82. If a species of animal evolves over generations to grow a large fan-blade like growth on its back to catch the wind and cool its body, this would be an example of responding to _____.

A. selection pressure


B. adaptation


C. natural selection


D. climate change


83. Modern anatomical language is based on _____ and _____ because individuals speaking these languages made most of the early anatomical discoveries.

A. Greek; Latin


B. English; Japanese


C. English; Spanish


D. Roman; Latin

True / False Questions

84. Lou Gehrig disease is the eponym for amyotropic lateral sclerosis, made famous by the “ice bucket challege.”

True    False

(Answer Key – included)

anatomy and physiology saladin 8th edition test bank