Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function 6th edition Saladin Test Bank

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  • Published: 2011
  • ISBN-10:¬†0073378259
  • ISBN-13:¬†978-0073378251

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anatomy and physiology saladin 6th edition test bank

Chapter 1

  1. The frontal plane passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left portions.True False
  2. The cut of a guillotine is an example of a section done in the midsagittal plane. True False
  1. The appendicular region consists of the head, neck and trunk. True False
  2. The appendix is typically found in the right lower quadrant. True False
  3. The liver is proximal to the diaphragm. True False
  1. When the abdomen is divided into nine regions, the superior horizontal line is called the midclavicular line.True False
  2. The most lateral and superior region of the abdomen is called the hypochondriac region. True False
  3. In anatomical position, the forearm is supinated. True False
  4. The heart occupies a space called the pericardial cavity between the parietal and visceral pericardium.True False
  5. The cranial cavity contains the brain. True False
  6. The __________ cavity is inferior to the _____________ cavity. A. cranial; thoracic
    B. thoracic; abdominopelvic
    C. pericardial; pleuralD. thoracic; peritoneal E. thoracic; cranial
  7. The most superior segment of the upper limb is called A. the digits.B. the manual region.
    C. the carpal region.
    D. the antebrachial region. E. the brachial region.
  8. The _____ region of the left lower limb is proximal to the _____ region of the same limb. A. carpal; manual
    B. femoral; crural
    C. antebrachial; brachialD. tarsal; crural
    E. brachial; femoral

0

  1. The ______ wraps around stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. A. pleuraB. pericardium
    C. meninges
    D. visceral peritoneum E. parietal peritoneum
  2. The ________ is an organ directly associated with both the _____ systems. A. stomach; digestive and reproductive
    B. pancreas; digestive and endocrine
    C. small intestine; digestive and integumentaryD. testis; male reproductive and urinary
    E. ovary; female reproductive and lymphatic
  3. Which one of the following is NOT in the correct anatomical position? A. arms at sidesB. standing erect
    C. face and eyes facing forward D. feet flat on the floor
    E. palms facing posteriorly
  4. The plane that passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into anterior and posterior portions is called the _____ plane.
    A. sagittal
    B. frontal

C. median D. transverse E. oblique

  1. The interscapular region is ______ to the scapular region. A. anteriorB. posterior C. medial D. lateral E. superior
  2. The breastbone is _____ to the vertebral column. A. anteriorB. posterior C. superior D. inferior E. medial
  3. The _____ part of the small intestine is the part closest the stomach. A. dorsalB. ventral C. proximal D. distal
    E. medial
  4. The right shoulder is ______ and __________ to the umbilical region. A. superior; lateral
    B. superior; medial
    C. inferior; lateralD. inferior; medial E. posterior; lateral
  1. The trachea is _____ to the esophagus. A. superiorB. dorsal
    C. anterior D. posterior E. inferior
  2. In the cat, the head is _________ to the tail, whereas in the human the head is ________ to the gluteal region (buttock).
    A. superior; superior
    B. anterior; superior

C. posterior; dorsal D. ventral; distal
E. anterior; posterior

  1. The visceral pericardium is ________ to the parietal pericardium. A. lateralB. medial
    C. superficial D. deep
    E. anterior
  2. The lumbar vertebrae are __________ to the thoracic vertebrae. A. anteriorB. superior C. cephalic D. posterior E. inferior
  3. The stomach is located mainly in which quadrant of the abdomen? A. right upper quadrant (RUQ)
    B. right lower quadrant (RLQ)
    C. left upper quadrant (LUQ)D. left lower quadrant (LLQ) E. left middle quadrant (LMQ)
  1. The superolateral regions of the abdomen are called the _________ regions. A. epigastricB. inguinal
    C. hypochondriac D. hypogastric
    E. lateral abdominal
  2. The urinary bladder is located in the __________ region. A. epigastricB. umbilical
    C. hypogastric D. inguinal
    E. hypochondriac
  3. In the appendicular region, the wrist is called the _____ region, and the ankle is called the ___________ region.A. manual; pedal
    B. brachial; crural
    C. crural; antebrachial D. carpal; tarsal
    E. metacarpal; metatarsal
  1. The backbone encloses the A. thoracic cavity.
    B. abdominal cavity.
    C. pelvic cavity.D. vertebral canal. E. cranial cavity.
  2. The brain and the spinal cord are protected by A. a parietal layer.
    B. a visceral layer.
    C. mucous membranes.D. serous membranes. E. the meninges.
  3. The thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity are lined by A. an endothelium.
    B. the mediastinum.
    C. meninges.D. serous membranes. E. mucous membranes.
  4. The thoracic cavity is divided into right, left, and medial portions by a region called the A. mediastinum.B. diaphragm.
    C. serous membrane. D. meninges.
    E. peritoneum.
  5. The _______ cavity contains the lungs, which are enfolded in the _____. A. thoracic; pleurae
    B. thoracic; pericardium
    C. thoracic; peritoneumD. abdominopelvic; peritoneum E. abdominopelvic; pleurae
  6. The most superficial wall of the pleural cavity is lined by the _____, whereas the outer surface of the lungs is covered by _____.
    A. mesothelium; endothelium
    B. parietal pericardium; visceral pericardiumC. visceral pleura; parietal pleura
    D. parietal pleura; visceral pleura
    E. visceral peritoneum; parietal peritoneum
  7. The heart is in the _____ cavity and is covered by the _____. A. thoracic; pleura
    B. thoracic; pericardium
    C. pericardial; pleuraD. pericardial; peritoneum E. cranial; meninges
  8. The surface of the heart is formed by a membrane called the A. parietal peritoneum.
    B. visceral peritoneum.
    C. parietal pericardium.D. visceral pericardium. E. parietal pleura.
  1. The abdominopelvic cavity contains a moist serous membrane called the A. peritoneum.B. pleura.
    C. pericardium. D. mediastinum. E. meninges.
  2. The kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands, aorta, and inferior vena cava are all located A. within the peritoneal cavity.
    B. retroperitoneally.
    C. inside the visceral peritoneum.D. within the pelvic cavity. E. within the thoracic cavity.
  3. A continuation of the peritoneum that binds the small intestine and suspends it from the abdominal wall is theA. greater omentum. B. mesentery.
    C. mesocolon.
    D. lesser omentum. E. mediastinum.
  4. A fatty membrane that hangs like an apron from the inferolateral margin of the stomach and overlies the small intestine is the
    A. greater omentum.
    B. mesentery.C. mesocolon.
    D. lesser omentum. E. mediastinum.
  5. This system provides protection, water retention, thermoregulation, and vitamin D production. A. lymphatic system
    B. muscular system
    C. skeletal systemD. integumentary system E. excretory system
  6. The thymus, spleen, and tonsils are principal organs of this system. A. endocrine system
    B. respiratory system
    C. lymphatic systemD. circulatory system E. muscular system
  7. These two systems control and coordinate the 50 trillion cells in a human. A. muscular and nervous systems
    B. circulatory and lymphatic systems
    C. endocrine and nervous systemsD. circulatory and endocrine systems E. muscular and skeletal systems
  8. This system stores 99% of your calcium and is critical for blood cell formation. A. circulatory system
    B. skeletal system
    C. excretory systemD. muscular system E. endocrine system
  1. The system that exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen and helps in speech is the _____ system, whereas the system that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide is the ______ system.
    A. respiratory; urinary
    B. circulatory; digestiveC. respiratory; digestive D. circulatory; urinary
    E. respiratory; circulatory
  2. This system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients. A. digestiveB. urinary
    C. reproductive D. circulatory E. lymphatic
  3. This system regulates blood volume and pressure, stimulates red blood cell formation, and controls fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance.
    A. urinary system
    B. reproductive systemC. digestive system D. muscular system E. circulatory system
  4. The image of a typical chest X-ray shows a _____ view of the thoracic region. A. sagittalB. frontal
    C. transverse D. oblique E. lateral
  5. The thyroid gland is _____ to the trachea and _____ to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. A. superior; lateral
    B. superior; medial
    C. superficial; inferior

D. deep; superior E. proximal; distal

0 Key

1. The frontal plane passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left portions.

FALSE

2. The cut of a guillotine is an example of a section done in the midsagittal plane. FALSE

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #1Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #2Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #3Section: A.02

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #4Section: A.02

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #5Section: A.01

  1. The appendicular region consists of the head, neck and trunk. FALSE
  2. The appendix is typically found in the right lower quadrant. TRUE
  3. The liver is proximal to the diaphragm. FALSE

Topic: Body Orientation

  1. When the abdomen is divided into nine regions, the superior horizontal line is called the midclavicularline. FALSEBlooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #6Section: A.02Topic: Body Orientation
  2. The most lateral and superior region of the abdomen is called the hypochondriac region.

TRUE

8. In anatomical position, the forearm is supinated. TRUE

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #7Section: A.02

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #8Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation 9. The heart occupies a space called the pericardial cavity between the parietal and visceral pericardium.

FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #9Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

  1. The cranial cavity contains the brain. TRUE
  2. The __________ cavity is inferior to the _____________ cavity. A. cranial; thoracicB. thoracic; abdominopelvic C. pericardial; pleural
    D. thoracic; peritoneal
    E. thoracic; cranial
  3. The most superior segment of the upper limb is called A. the digits.B. the manual region.
    C. the carpal region.
    D. the antebrachial region. E. the brachial region.

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #10Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

Saladin – Atlas A… #11Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

Saladin – Atlas A… #12Topic: Body Orientation

13. The _____ region of the left lower limb is proximal to the _____ region of the same limb. A. carpal; manual

B. femoral; crural
C. antebrachial; brachial D. tarsal; crural
E. brachial; femoral

  1. The ______ wraps around stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. A. pleuraB. pericardium
    C. meninges
    D. visceral peritoneum E. parietal peritoneum
  2. The ________ is an organ directly associated with both the _____ systems. A. stomach; digestive and reproductive
    B. pancreas; digestive and endocrine
    C. small intestine; digestive and integumentaryD. testis; male reproductive and urinary
    E. ovary; female reproductive and lymphatic

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

Saladin – Atlas A… #13Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #14Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 5. EvaluateSaladin – Atlas A… #15Section: A.04

Topic: Body Orientation

16. Which one of the following is NOT in the correct anatomical position? A. arms at sides

B. standing erect
C. face and eyes facing forward D. feet flat on the floor
E. palms facing posteriorly

Topic: Body Orientation 17. The plane that passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into anterior and posterior

portions is called the _____ plane. A. sagittal
B. frontal
C. median

D. transverse E. oblique

  1. The interscapular region is ______ to the scapular region. A. anteriorB. posterior C. medial D. lateral E. superior
  2. The breastbone is _____ to the vertebral column. A. anteriorB. posterior C. superior D. inferior E. medial
  3. The _____ part of the small intestine is the part closest the stomach. A. dorsalB. ventral C. proximal D. distal
    E. medial
  4. The right shoulder is ______ and __________ to the umbilical region. A. superior; lateralB. superior; medial C. inferior; lateral D. inferior; medial E. posterior; lateral

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #17Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #18Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #19Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #20Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #21Section: A.01

Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSaladin – Atlas A… #16Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

22. The trachea is _____ to the esophagus. A. superior

B. dorsal C. anterior D. posterior E. inferior

Topic: Body Orientation 23. In the cat, the head is _________ to the tail, whereas in the human the head is ________ to the gluteal

region (buttock). A. superior; superior B. anterior; superior C. posterior; dorsal D. ventral; distal

E. anterior; posterior

  1. The visceral pericardium is ________ to the parietal pericardium. A. lateralB. medial
    C. superficial D. deep
    E. anterior
  2. The lumbar vertebrae are __________ to the thoracic vertebrae. A. anteriorB. superior C. cephalic D. posterior E. inferior
  3. The stomach is located mainly in which quadrant of the abdomen? A. right upper quadrant (RUQ)
    B. right lower quadrant (RLQ)
    C. left upper quadrant (LUQ)D. left lower quadrant (LLQ) E. left middle quadrant (LMQ)

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #23Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #24Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #25Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSaladin – Atlas A… #26Section: A.02

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #27Section: A.02

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #22Section: A.01

27. The superolateral regions of the abdomen are called the _________ regions. A. epigastric

B. inguinal
C. hypochondriac D. hypogastric
E. lateral abdominal

28. The urinary bladder is located in the __________ region. A. epigastric

B. umbilical
C. hypogastric
D. inguinal
E. hypochondriac

Topic: Body Orientation 29. In the appendicular region, the wrist is called the _____ region, and the ankle is called the

___________ region. A. manual; pedal
B. brachial; crural
C. crural; antebrachial

D. carpal; tarsal
E. metacarpal; metatarsal

  1. The backbone encloses the A. thoracic cavity.B. abdominal cavity. C. pelvic cavity.
    D. vertebral canal. E. cranial cavity.
  2. The brain and the spinal cord are protected by A. a parietal layer.B. a visceral layer.
    C. mucous membranes. D. serous membranes. E. the meninges.
  3. The thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity are lined by A. an endothelium.B. the mediastinum.
    C. meninges.
    D. serous membranes. E. mucous membranes.

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #29Section: A.02

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #30Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #31Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

Saladin – Atlas A… #32Section: A.03

Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSaladin – Atlas A… #28Section: A.02

Topic: Body Orientation33. The thoracic cavity is divided into right, left, and medial portions by a region called the

A. mediastinum.
B. diaphragm.
C. serous membrane. D. meninges.
E. peritoneum.

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #33Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

34. The _______ cavity contains the lungs, which are enfolded in the _____. A. thoracic; pleurae

B. thoracic; pericardium
C. thoracic; peritoneum
D. abdominopelvic; peritoneum E. abdominopelvic; pleurae

Topic: Body Orientation 35. The most superficial wall of the pleural cavity is lined by the _____, whereas the outer surface of the

lungs is covered by _____.
A. mesothelium; endothelium
B. parietal pericardium; visceral pericardium C. visceral pleura; parietal pleura
D. parietal pleura; visceral pleura
E. visceral peritoneum; parietal peritoneum

  1. The heart is in the _____ cavity and is covered by the _____. A. thoracic; pleuraB. thoracic; pericardium C. pericardial; pleura
    D. pericardial; peritoneum E. cranial; meninges
  2. The surface of the heart is formed by a membrane called the A. parietal peritoneum.B. visceral peritoneum. C. parietal pericardium. D. visceral pericardium. E. parietal pleura.
  3. The abdominopelvic cavity contains a moist serous membrane called the A. peritoneum.B. pleura.
    C. pericardium. D. mediastinum. E. meninges.

Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSaladin – Atlas A… #35Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSaladin – Atlas A… #36Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #37Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #38Section: A.03

Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSaladin – Atlas A… #34Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation39. The kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands, aorta, and inferior vena cava are all located

A. within the peritoneal cavity. B. retroperitoneally.
C. inside the visceral peritoneum. D. within the pelvic cavity.

E. within the thoracic cavity.

Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSaladin – Atlas A… #39Section: A.03

Topic: Body Orientation

  1. A continuation of the peritoneum that binds the small intestine and suspends it from the abdominal wall is theA. greater omentum. B. mesentery.
    C. mesocolon.
    D. lesser omentum. E. mediastinum.Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSaladin – Atlas A… #40Section: A.03Topic: Body Orientation
  2. A fatty membrane that hangs like an apron from the inferolateral margin of the stomach and overlies

the small intestine is the A. greater omentum.
B. mesentery.
C. mesocolon.

D. lesser omentum. E. mediastinum.

Topic: Body Orientation42. This system provides protection, water retention, thermoregulation, and vitamin D production.

A. lymphatic system
B. muscular system
C. skeletal system
D. integumentary system E. excretory system

  1. The thymus, spleen, and tonsils are principal organs of this system. A. endocrine systemB. respiratory system C. lymphatic system D. circulatory system E. muscular system
  2. These two systems control and coordinate the 50 trillion cells in a human. A. muscular and nervous systems
    B. circulatory and lymphatic systems
    C. endocrine and nervous systemsD. circulatory and endocrine systems E. muscular and skeletal systems

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #42Section: A.04

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #43Section: A.04

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #44Section: A.04

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #41Section: A.03

  1. This system stores 99% of your calcium and is critical for blood cell formation. A. circulatory systemB. skeletal system C. excretory system D. muscular system E. endocrine systemBlooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #45Section: A.04Topic: Body Orientation
  2. The system that exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen and helps in speech is the _____ system,whereas the system that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide is the ______ system. A. respiratory; urinary
    B. circulatory; digestive
    C. respiratory; digestive

D. circulatory; urinary
E. respiratory; circulatory

47. This system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients. A. digestive

B. urinary
C. reproductive D. circulatory E. lymphatic

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #46Section: A.04

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #47Section: A.04

Topic: Body Orientation 48. This system regulates blood volume and pressure, stimulates red blood cell formation, and controls

fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. A. urinary system
B. reproductive system
C. digestive system

D. muscular system E. circulatory system

49. The image of a typical chest X-ray shows a _____ view of the thoracic region. A. sagittal

B. frontal
C. transverse D. oblique E. lateral

Blooms Level: 1. RememberSaladin – Atlas A… #48Section: A.04

Topic: Body Orientation

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #49Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

50. The thyroid gland is _____ to the trachea and _____ to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. A. superior; lateral

B. superior; medial
C. superficial; inferior D. deep; superior
E. proximal; distal

Blooms Level: 3. ApplySaladin – Atlas A… #50Section: A.01

Topic: Body Orientation

Category

Blooms Level: 1. Remember Blooms Level: 2. Understand Blooms Level: 3. Apply Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate Saladin – Atlas A…

Section: A.01
Section: A.02
Section: A.03
Section: A.04
Topic: Body Orientation

# of Questions

     25
     8
     15
     1
     50
     16
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     15
     8
     50

0 Summary

chapter 01

True / False Questions

  1. Feeling for swollen lymph nodes is an example of auscultation. True False
  2. We can see through bones with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). True False
  3. Histology is the study of structures that can be observed without a magnifying lens. True False
  4. Cells were first named by microscopist Robert Hooke. True False
  5. All functions of the body can be interpreted as the effects of cellular activity. True False
  6. The hypothetico-deductive method is common in physiology, whereas the inductive method is common in anatomy.
    True False
  7. An individual scientific fact has more information than a theory. True False
  8. Evolutionary (darwinian) medicine traces some of our diseases to our evolutionary past. True False
  1. The terms development and evolution have the same meaning in physiology. True False
  2. Organs are made of tissues. True False
  3. A molecule of water is more complex than a mitochondrion (organelle). True False
  4. Homeostasis and occupying space are both unique characteristics of living things. True False
  5. Positive feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body’s physiological variables gets out of balance.
    True False
  6. Negative feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tend to produce rapid change in the body.True False
  7. Anatomists over the world adhere to a lexicon of standard international terms, which stipulates both Latin names and accepted English equivalents.
    True False

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Feeling structures with your fingertips is called _________, whereas tapping on the body and listening for sounds of abnormalities is called ____________
    A. palpation; auscultation.
    B. auscultation; percussion.C. percussion; auscultation. D. palpation; percussion.
    E. percussion; palpation.
  2. ___________________ was the first to publish accurate drawings of the body, and is thus regarded as “the father of modern anatomy.”
    A. Vesalius
    B. MaimonidesC. Harvey
    D. Aristotle
    E. van Leeuwenhoek
  3. ________________ wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era. A. HippocratesB. Aristotle C. Galen
    D. Vesalius E. Avicenna
  1. Which of these is the best imaging technique for routinely examining the anatomical development of a fetus?A. auscultation B. PET scan C. MRI
    D. sonography E. radiography
  2. The terms physics, physiology, and physician come from a term that ___ proposed to distinguish natural causes from supernatural causes.
    A. Hippocrates
    B. PlatoC. Schwann D. Aristotle E. Avicenna
  3. The process of using numerous observations to develop general principles and predictions about a specific subject is called
    A. experimental design.
    B. deductive method.C. inductive method. D. hypothesis.
    E. statistical testing.
  1. Most people think that ulcers are caused by psychological stress. It was discovered that an acid- resistant bacterium, Heliobacter pylori, lives in the lining of the stomach. If these bacteria cause ulcers, then treatment with an antibiotic should reduce ulcers. This line of investigation is an example ofA. hypothetical reasoning.
    B. hypothetico-deductive reasoning. C. the inductive method.
    D. experimental design.
    E. statistical analysis.
  2. An educated speculation or a possible answer to a question is called a(n) A. scientific method.
    B. theory.
    C. law.D. hypothesis. E. fact.
  3. The use of controls and statistical testing are two aspects of experimental design that help to ensureA. an adequate sample size.
    B. objective and reliable results. C. experimental bias.
    D. psychosomatic effects.
    E. treatment groups.
  1. ______________ is a process that submits a scientist’s ideas to the critical judgment of other specialists in the field before the research is funded or published.
    A. Adjudication
    B. Statistical testingC. Falsification
    D. Peer review
    E. Hypothetico-deductive testing
  2. Which of the following would contain the greatest amount of information that scientists consider to be true to the best of their knowledge?
    A. a fact
    B. a law of natureC. a hypothesis D. an equation E. a theory
  3. The study of structure and function of cells is called A. cytology.B. gross anatomy.
    C. exploratory physiology. D. comparative physiology. E. radiology.
  1. ________________ established a code of ethics for physicians. He is considered the “father of medicine.”A. Aristotle
    B. Hippocrates C. Galen
    D. Vesalius
    E. Hooke
  2. A new drug apparently increases short-term memory. Students were divided randomly into two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group was given the memory pill once a day for the semester, and the other group was given a same-looking pill, but it was just sugar. The sugar pill is termed a(n)A. controlled pill. B. placebo.
    C. treatment pill. D. variable.E. effective dose.
  3. Two groups of people were tested to determine whether garlic lowers blood cholesterol levels. One group was given 800 mg of garlic powder daily for four months and exhibited an average 12% reduction in the blood cholesterol. The other group was not given any garlic and after four months averaged a 3% reduction in cholesterol. The group that was not given the garlic was the A. peer group.B. test group.
    C. treatment group. D. control group.
    E. double-blind group.
  1. A change in the genetic composition of a population over time is called A. mutation.B. natural selection. C. selection pressure. D. evolution.
    E. adaptation.
  2. The constant appearance of new strains of influenza virus is an example of A. a model.B. evolution.
    C. selection pressure. D. survivorship.
    E. success.
  3. The principal theory of how evolution works is called A. natural pressure.
    B. selective pressure.
    C. darwinian pressure.D. natural adaptation. E. natural selection.
  4. Which of the following was an adaptation evolved in connection with human upright walking? A. hairB. thumbs fully opposable
    C. stereoscopic vision
    D. color vision
    E. spinal and pelvic anatomy
  1. Stereoscopic vision provides A. opposable perception.
    B. color perception.
    C. depth perception.D. bipedalism.
    E. walking upright.
  2. Humans are born before their nervous system have matured, which is traceable to A. their inability to regulate body temperature.
    B. skeletal adaptations to bipedalism.
    C. the arboreal habits of early primates.D. the conditions of modern civilization. E. the diet of early species of Homo.
  3. Our own species is called A. Homo erectus.
    B. Homo sapiens.
    C. Homo habilis.D. early Homo.
    E. Australopithecus.
  4. Most primates are ________________, meaning they live in trees. A. prehensileB. bipedal
    C. cursorial D. troglodytic E. arboreal
  1. An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell.
    A. organ system, organs
    B. organ system, organellesC. organ, organelles
    D. organ, molecules
    E. organelle, molecules
  2. Which of the following lists levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest? A. organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system
    B. organ system, organ, cell, tissue, organelle
    C. organ system, organelle, tissue, cell, organD. organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle E. organ, organ system, tissue, cell, organelle
  3. Which of the following lists examples of body structures from the simplest to the most complex? A. mitochondrion, connective tissue, protein, stomach, adipocyte (fat cell)
    B. protein, mitochondrion, adipocyte (fat cell), connective tissue, stomach
    C. mitochondrion, connective tissue, stomach, protein, adipocyte (fat cell)D. protein, adipocyte (fat cell), stomach, connective tissue, mitochondrion E. protein, stomach, connective tissue, adipocyte (fat cell), mitochondrion
  4. A(n) _____________ is a group of similar cells and their intercellular materials in a discrete region of an organ performing a specific function.
    A. macromolecule
    B. organ systemC. organelle D. organism E. tissue
  1. Taking apart a clock to see how it works is similar to ____________ thinking about human physiology.A. comparative B. evolutionary C. holistic
    D. inductiveE. reductionist
  2. _______________ approaches understanding of the human body by studying interactions of its parts.A. Naturalism
    B. Reductionism C. Vitalism
    D. Holism
    E. Rationalism
  3. _____________ is the view that not everything about an organism can be understood or predicted from the knowledge of its components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
    A. Naturalism
    B. ReductionismC. Holism
    D. Materialism E. Science
  1. The fact that most of us have five lumbar vertebrae, but some people have six and some have four is an example of ____________ variation among organisms.
    A. cellular
    B. holisticC. physiological D. anatomical E. reductionist
  2. _________________ are the simplest body structures considered alive. A. Organ systems
    B. Organs
    C. CellsD. Organelles E. Molecules
  3. All of the following are human organ systems except A. skeletal.B. endocrine. C. epidermal. D. reproductive. E. lymphatic.
  4. All of the following are organs except A. teeth.B. skin.
    C. nails.
    D. liver.
    E. digestive system.
  1. Metabolism is the sum of
    A. inhalation and exhalation.
    B. growth and differentiation.
    C. anabolism and catabolism.
    D. positive and negative feedback. E. responsiveness and movement.
  2. We live in an ever-changing environment outside of our body, yet our internal conditions remain relatively stable. This is called
    A. homeostasis.
    B. metastasis.C. responsiveness. D. adaptation.
    E. evolution.
  3. When you exercise you generate excess heat and your body temperature rises. Blood vessels dilate in the skin, warm blood flows closer to the body surface, and you lose heat. This exemplifies
    A. negative feedback.B. positive feedback. C. dynamic equilibrium. D. integration control. E. set point adjustment.
  1. When a woman is giving birth, the head of the baby pushes against her cervix and stimulates release of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin travels in the blood and stimulates the uterus to contract. Labor contractions become more and more intense until the baby is expelled. This is an example ofA. negative feedback. B. positive feedback. C. dynamic equilibrium. D. integration control. E. set point adjustment.
  2. Which of the following is most likely to cause disease? A. positive feedback
    B. negative feedback
    C. homeostasisD. equilibrium E. irritability
  3. Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates release of the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates body cells to uptake glucose from the bloodstream. This reduces blood glucose concentration. This is an example of
    A. negative feedback.B. positive feedback. C. dynamic equilibrium. D. integration control. E. set point adjustment.
  1. The ____________ is defined as a healthy male 22 years old, weighing 70 kg (154 lb), under no environmental stress, and consuming 2,800 kilocalories (kcal) per day; whereas the ________ is the same except for a weight of 58 kg (128 lb) and an intake of 2,000 kcal/day.
    A. normal man, normal womanB. normal male, normal female
    C. average man, average woman D. average male, average woman E. reference man, reference woman
  2. The change in size of the bone marrow (where blood cells are produced) as an infant matures is an example of __________, whereas the transformation of blood stem cells into white blood cells is an example of __________________
    A. development, differentiation.B. growth, development.
    C. growth, differentiation.
    D. differentiation, growth.
    E. differentiation, development.
  3. Three common components of a feedback loop are
    A. a stimulus, an integrating (control) center, and an organ system. B. a stimulus, a receptor, and an integrating (control) center.
    C. a receptor, an integrating (control) center, and an effector.
    D. a receptor, an organ, and an organ system.
    E. a receptor, an integrating (control) center, and an organ system.
  1. Negative feedback loops are A. homeostatic.B. not homeostatic.
    C. associated with “vicious circles.” D. self-amplifying cycles.
    E. harmful.
  2. The prefix hypo- means _______________, whereas hyper- means _____________. A. front, backB. right, left
    C. inside, outside D. clear, dark
    E. below, above
  3. The term fallopian tube (uterine tube) is an example of A. a Latin root used in medical terminology.
    B. the use of prefixes to name an anatomical structure. C. the use of suffixes to name an anatomical structure. D. an eponym.E. an acronym.
  4. Hypercalcemia means
    A. elevated calcium levels in blood.
    B. lowered calcium levels in bone.
    C. elevated sodium levels in blood.
    D. elevated calcium levels in bone.
    E. lowered calcium levels in the blood.
  1. The plural of axilla (armpit) is ____________ whereas the plural of appendix is ___________. A. axillae; appendices
    B. axillides; appendages
    C. axillies; appendiD. axilli; appendices
  2. The plural of villus (hair) is ____________ whereas the plural of diagnosis is ____________ A. villuses, diagnosises.
    B. villi, diagnoses.
    C. villus, diagnosis.D. villi, diagnosis.
    E. villuses, diagnosis.
  3. The lexicon of standard international anatomical terms A. is called Terminologia Anatomica (TA).
    B. is called Nomina Anatomica (NA).
    C. is formed from thousands of English word roots.D. is formed from thousands of Italian word roots. E. is formed from thousands of French word roots.

chapter 01 Key

True / False Questions

  1. Feeling for swollen lymph nodes is an example of auscultation.FALSEBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.01.b Describe several ways of studying human anatomy. Section: 01.01 Topic: General
  2. We can see through bones with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).TRUEBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.01.b Describe several ways of studying human anatomy. Section: 01.01 Topic: General
  3. Histology is the study of structures that can be observed without a magnifying lens.FALSEBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.01.b Describe several ways of studying human anatomy. Section: 01.01 Topic: General
  4. Cells were first named by microscopist Robert Hooke.TRUEBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.02.b Describe the contributions of some key people who helped to bring about this transformation. Section: 01.02 Topic: General
  5. All functions of the body can be interpreted as the effects of cellular activity.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.02.b Describe the contributions of some key people who helped to bring about this transformation.

Section: 01.02 Topic: General

  1. The hypothetico-deductive method is common in physiology, whereas the inductive method is common in anatomy.TRUEBloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.03.a Describe the inductive and hypothetico-deductive methods of obtaining scientific knowledge. Section: 01.03 Topic: General
  2. An individual scientific fact has more information than a theory.FALSEBloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.03.c Explain what is meant by hypothesis, fact, law, and theory in science. Section: 01.03 Topic: General
  3. Evolutionary (darwinian) medicine traces some of our diseases to our evolutionary past.TRUEBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.04.a Explain why evolution is relevant to understanding human form and function. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  4. The terms development and evolution have the same meaning in physiology.FALSEBloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.04.a Explain why evolution is relevant to understanding human form and function. Learning Outcome: 01.04.b Define evolution and natural selection. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  5. Organs are made of tissues.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05

11. A molecule of water is more complex than a mitochondrion (organelle).

FALSE

  1. Homeostasis and occupying space are both unique characteristics of living things.FALSEBloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.06.a State the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving objects. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  2. Positive feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body’s physiological variables gets out of balance.
    FALSEBloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.06.e Define positive feedback and give examples of its beneficial and harmful effects. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  3. Negative feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tend to produce rapid change in the body.FALSEBloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.06.d Define negative feedback, given an example of it, and explain its importance to homeostasis. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  4. Anatomists over the world adhere to a lexicon of standard international terms, which stipulates both Latin names and accepted English equivalents.
    TRUE

Topic: General

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05 Topic: General

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember

Learning Outcome: 01.07.a Explain why modern anatomical terminology is so heavily based on Greek and Latin. Section: 01.07 Topic: General

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Feeling structures with your fingertips is called _________, whereas tapping on the body and listening for sounds of abnormalities is called ____________
    A. palpation; auscultation.
    B. auscultation; percussion.C. percussion; auscultation. D. palpation; percussion.
    E. percussion; palpation.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.01.b Describe several ways of studying human anatomy. Section: 01.01 Topic: General
  2. ___________________ was the first to publish accurate drawings of the body, and is thus regarded as “the father of modern anatomy.”
    A. Vesalius
    B. MaimonidesC. Harvey
    D. Aristotle
    E. van LeeuwenhoekBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.02.b Describe the contributions of some key people who helped to bring about this transformation. Section: 01.02 Topic: General
  1. ________________ wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era. A. HippocratesB. Aristotle C. Galen
    D. Vesalius E. Avicenna
  2. Which of these is the best imaging technique for routinely examining the anatomical development of a fetus?A. auscultation B. PET scan C. MRI
    D. sonography E. radiographyBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.01.b Describe several ways of studying human anatomy. Section: 01.01 Topic: General
  3. The terms physics, physiology, and physician come from a term that ___ proposed to distinguish natural causes from supernatural causes.
    A. Hippocrates
    B. PlatoC. Schwann D. Aristotle E. AvicennaBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.02.a Give examples of how modern biomedical science emerged from an era of superstition and authoritarianism. Section: 01.02

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.02.b Describe the contributions of some key people who helped to bring about this transformation. Section: 01.02 Topic: General

  1. The process of using numerous observations to develop general principles and predictions about a specific subject is called
    A. experimental design.
    B. deductive method.C. inductive method. D. hypothesis.
    E. statistical testing.Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.03.a Describe the inductive and hypothetico-deductive methods of obtaining scientific knowledge. Section: 01.03 Topic: General
  2. Most people think that ulcers are caused by psychological stress. It was discovered that an acid-resistant bacterium, Heliobacter pylori, lives in the lining of the stomach. If these bacteria cause ulcers, then treatment with an antibiotic should reduce ulcers. This line of investigation is an example ofA. hypothetical reasoning.
    B. hypothetico-deductive reasoning. C. the inductive method.
    D. experimental design.
    E. statistical analysis.Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.03.a Describe the inductive and hypothetico-deductive methods of obtaining scientific knowledge. Section: 01.03 Topic: General

Topic: General

  1. An educated speculation or a possible answer to a question is called a(n) A. scientific method.B. theory.
    C. law.
    D. hypothesis. E. fact.Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.03.c Explain what is meant by hypothesis, fact, law, and theory in science. Section: 01.03 Topic: General
  2. The use of controls and statistical testing are two aspects of experimental design that help to ensureA. an adequate sample size.
    B. objective and reliable results. C. experimental bias.
    D. psychosomatic effects.
    E. treatment groups.Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.03.b Describe some aspects of experimental design that help to ensure objective and reliable results. Section: 01.03 Topic: General
  3. ______________ is a process that submits a scientist’s ideas to the critical judgment of other specialists in the field before the research is funded or published.
    A. Adjudication
    B. Statistical testingC. Falsification
    D. Peer review
    E. Hypothetico-deductive testingBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.03.b Describe some aspects of experimental design that help to ensure objective and reliable results. Section: 01.03
  1. Which of the following would contain the greatest amount of information that scientists consider to be true to the best of their knowledge?
    A. a fact
    B. a law of natureC. a hypothesis D. an equation E. a theoryBloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.03.c Explain what is meant by hypothesis, fact, law, and theory in science. Section: 01.03 Topic: General
  2. The study of structure and function of cells is called A. cytology.B. gross anatomy.
    C. exploratory physiology. D. comparative physiology. E. radiology.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.01.b Describe several ways of studying human anatomy. Section: 01.01 Topic: General
  3. ________________ established a code of ethics for physicians. He is considered the “father of medicine.”A. Aristotle
    B. Hippocrates C. Galen
    D. Vesalius
    E. Hooke

Topic: General

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember

Learning Outcome: 01.02.b Describe the contributions of some key people who helped to bring about this transformation. Section: 01.02 Topic: General

  1. A new drug apparently increases short-term memory. Students were divided randomly into two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group was given the memory pill once a day for the semester, and the other group was given a same-looking pill, but it was just sugar. The sugar pill is termed a(n)
    A. controlled pill.
    B. placebo.
    C. treatment pill.
    D. variable.
    E. effective dose.Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.03.b Describe some aspects of experimental design that help to ensure objective and reliable results. Section: 01.03 Topic: General
  2. Two groups of people were tested to determine whether garlic lowers blood cholesterol levels. One group was given 800 mg of garlic powder daily for four months and exhibited an average 12% reduction in the blood cholesterol. The other group was not given any garlic and after four months averaged a 3% reduction in cholesterol. The group that was not given the garlic was theA. peer group.
    B. test group.
    C. treatment group. D. control group.
    E. double-blind group.Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.03.b Describe some aspects of experimental design that help to ensure objective and reliable results. Section: 01.03 Topic: General
  1. A change in the genetic composition of a population over time is called A. mutation.B. natural selection. C. selection pressure. D. evolution.
    E. adaptation.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.04.b Define evolution and natural selection. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  2. The constant appearance of new strains of influenza virus is an example of A. a model.B. evolution.
    C. selection pressure. D. survivorship.
    E. success.Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.04.b Define evolution and natural selection. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  3. The principal theory of how evolution works is called A. natural pressure.

B. selective pressure. C. darwinian pressure. D. natural adaptation. E. natural selection.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.04.b Define evolution and natural selection. Section: 01.04 Topic: General

  1. Which of the following was an adaptation evolved in connection with human upright walking? A. hairB. thumbs fully opposable
    C. stereoscopic vision
    D. color vision
    E. spinal and pelvic anatomyBloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.04.d Describe some human characteristics that evolved later in connection with upright walking. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  2. Stereoscopic vision provides A. opposable perception.B. color perception. C. depth perception. D. bipedalism.
    E. walking upright.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.04.c Describe some human characteristics that can be attributed to the tree-dwelling habits of earlier primates. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  3. Humans are born before their nervous system have matured, which is traceable to A. their inability to regulate body temperature.
    B. skeletal adaptations to bipedalism.
    C. the arboreal habits of early primates.D. the conditions of modern civilization. E. the diet of early species of Homo.Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.04.d Describe some human characteristics that evolved later in connection with upright walking. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  1. Our own species is called A. Homo erectus.B. Homo sapiens. C. Homo habilis.
    D. early Homo.
    E. Australopithecus.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.04.d Describe some human characteristics that evolved later in connection with upright walking. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  2. Most primates are ________________, meaning they live in trees. A. prehensileB. bipedal
    C. cursorial D. troglodytic E. arborealBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.04.c Describe some human characteristics that can be attributed to the tree-dwelling habits of earlier primates. Section: 01.04 Topic: General
  3. An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell.
    A. organ system, organs
    B. organ system, organelles

C. organ, organelles
D. organ, molecules
E. organelle, molecules

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05 Topic: General

  1. Which of the following lists levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest? A. organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system
    B. organ system, organ, cell, tissue, organelle
    C. organ system, organelle, tissue, cell, organD. organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle E. organ, organ system, tissue, cell, organelleBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05 Topic: General
  2. Which of the following lists examples of body structures from the simplest to the most complex?A. mitochondrion, connective tissue, protein, stomach, adipocyte (fat cell) B. protein, mitochondrion, adipocyte (fat cell), connective tissue, stomach C. mitochondrion, connective tissue, stomach, protein, adipocyte (fat cell) D. protein, adipocyte (fat cell), stomach, connective tissue, mitochondrion E. protein, stomach, connective tissue, adipocyte (fat cell), mitochondrionBloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05 Topic: General
  3. A(n) _____________ is a group of similar cells and their intercellular materials in a discrete region of an organ performing a specific function.
    A. macromolecule
    B. organ system

C. organelle D. organism E. tissue

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest.

Section: 01.05 Topic: General

  1. Taking apart a clock to see how it works is similar to ____________ thinking about human physiology.A. comparative B. evolutionary C. holistic
    D. inductiveE. reductionistBloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.05.b Discuss the value of both reductionistic and holistic viewpoints to understanding human form and function. Section: 01.05 Topic: General
  2. _______________ approaches understanding of the human body by studying interactions of its parts.A. Naturalism
    B. Reductionism C. Vitalism
    D. Holism
    E. RationalismBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.05.b Discuss the value of both reductionistic and holistic viewpoints to understanding human form and function. Section: 01.05 Topic: General
  1. _____________ is the view that not everything about an organism can be understood or predicted from the knowledge of its components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
    A. Naturalism
    B. Reductionism
    C. Holism
    D. Materialism
    E. ScienceBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.05.b Discuss the value of both reductionistic and holistic viewpoints to understanding human form and function. Section: 01.05 Topic: General
  2. The fact that most of us have five lumbar vertebrae, but some people have six and some have four is an example of ____________ variation among organisms.
    A. cellular
    B. holistic

C. physiological D. anatomical E. reductionist

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.05.c Discuss the clinical significance of anatomical variation among humans. Section: 01.05 Topic: General

47. _________________ are the simplest body structures considered alive. A. Organ systems

B. Organs
C. Cells
D. Organelles E. Molecules

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember

Learning Outcome: 01.06.a State the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving objects. Section: 01.05 Topic: General

  1. All of the following are human organ systems except A. skeletal.B. endocrine. C. epidermal. D. reproductive. E. lymphatic.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05 Topic: General
  2. All of the following are organs except A. teeth.B. skin.
    C. nails.
    D. liver.
    E. digestive system.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05 Topic: General
  3. Metabolism is the sum of
    A. inhalation and exhalation.
    B. growth and differentiation.
    C. anabolism and catabolism.
    D. positive and negative feedback. E. responsiveness and movement.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.06.a State the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving objects.

Section: 01.06 Topic: General

  1. We live in an ever-changing environment outside of our body, yet our internal conditions remain relatively stable. This is called
    A. homeostasis.
    B. metastasis.C. responsiveness. D. adaptation.
    E. evolution.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.06.c Define homeostasis and explain why this concept is central to physiology. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  2. When you exercise you generate excess heat and your body temperature rises. Blood vessels dilate in the skin, warm blood flows closer to the body surface, and you lose heat. This exemplifies
    A. negative feedback.B. positive feedback. C. dynamic equilibrium. D. integration control. E. set point adjustment.Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.06.d Define negative feedback, given an example of it, and explain its importance to homeostasis. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  1. When a woman is giving birth, the head of the baby pushes against her cervix and stimulates release of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin travels in the blood and stimulates the uterus to contract. Labor contractions become more and more intense until the baby is expelled. This is an example ofA. negative feedback. B. positive feedback. C. dynamic equilibrium. D. integration control. E. set point adjustment.Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.06.e Define positive feedback and give examples of its beneficial and harmful effects. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  2. Which of the following is most likely to cause disease? A. positive feedback

B. negative feedback C. homeostasis
D. equilibrium
E. irritability

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.06.e Define positive feedback and give examples of its beneficial and harmful effects. Section: 01.06 Topic: General

  1. Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates release of the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates body cells to uptake glucose from the bloodstream. This reduces blood glucose concentration. This is an example of
    A. negative feedback.B. positive feedback. C. dynamic equilibrium. D. integration control. E. set point adjustment.Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.06.d Define negative feedback, given an example of it, and explain its importance to homeostasis. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  2. The ____________ is defined as a healthy male 22 years old, weighing 70 kg (154 lb), under no environmental stress, and consuming 2,800 kilocalories (kcal) per day; whereas the ________ is the same except for a weight of 58 kg (128 lb) and an intake of 2,000 kcal/day. A. normal man, normal womanB. normal male, normal female
    C. average man, average woman D. average male, average woman E. reference man, reference womanBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.06.b Explain the importance of defining a reference man and woman. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  1. The change in size of the bone marrow (where blood cells are produced) as an infant matures is an example of __________, whereas the transformation of blood stem cells into white blood cells is an example of __________________
    A. development, differentiation.B. growth, development.
    C. growth, differentiation.
    D. differentiation, growth.
    E. differentiation, development.Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 01.06.a State the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving objects. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  2. Three common components of a feedback loop are
    A. a stimulus, an integrating (control) center, and an organ system. B. a stimulus, a receptor, and an integrating (control) center.
    C. a receptor, an integrating (control) center, and an effector.
    D. a receptor, an organ, and an organ system.
    E. a receptor, an integrating (control) center, and an organ system.Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: 01.06.c Define homeostasis and explain why this concept is central to physiology. Section: 01.06 Topic: General
  3. Negative feedback loops are A. homeostatic.B. not homeostatic.
    C. associated with “vicious circles.” D. self-amplifying cycles.
    E. harmful.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.06.d Define negative feedback, given an example of it, and explain its importance to homeostasis.

60. The prefix hypo- means _______________, whereas hyper- means _____________. A. front, back

B. right, left
C. inside, outside D. clear, dark
E. below, above

61. The term fallopian tube (uterine tube) is an example of A. a Latin root used in medical terminology.
B. the use of prefixes to name an anatomical structure. C. the use of suffixes to name an anatomical structure. D. an eponym.

Section: 01.06 Topic: General

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.07.d Break medical terms down into their basic word elements. Section: 01.07 Topic: General

E. an acronym.

62. Hypercalcemia means
A. elevated calcium levels in blood.
B. lowered calcium levels in bone.
C. elevated sodium levels in blood.
D. elevated calcium levels in bone.
E. lowered calcium levels in the blood.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.07.b Recognize eponyms when you see them. Section: 01.07 Topic: General

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.07.d Break medical terms down into their basic word elements. Section: 01.07

  1. The plural of axilla (armpit) is ____________ whereas the plural of appendix is ___________. A. axillae; appendicesB. axillides; appendages C. axillies; appendi
    D. axilli; appendicesBloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.07.f Relate singular noun forms to their plural and adjectival forms. Section: 01.07 Topic: General
  2. The plural of villus (hair) is ____________ whereas the plural of diagnosis is ____________ A. villuses, diagnosises.B. villi, diagnoses.
    C. villus, diagnosis. D. villi, diagnosis.
    E. villuses, diagnosis.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.07.f Relate singular noun forms to their plural and adjectival forms. Section: 01.07 Topic: General
  3. The lexicon of standard international anatomical terms A. is called Terminologia Anatomica (TA).
    B. is called Nomina Anatomica (NA).
    C. is formed from thousands of English word roots.D. is formed from thousands of Italian word roots. E. is formed from thousands of French word roots.Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 01.07.c Describe the efforts to achieve an internationally uniform anatomical terminology. Section: 01.07 Topic: General

Topic: General

chapter 01 Summary Category

# of Questio ns

39 9 17 6 1

5 3 4

3 2 4 2

3 8 3

1 4 1 2 4 3 1 1 1 2

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply

Learning Outcome: 01.01.b Describe several ways of studying human anatomy.

Learning Outcome: 01.02.a Give examples of how modern biomedical science emerged from an era of superstition and a uthoritarianism.

Learning Outcome: 01.02.b Describe the contributions of some key people who helped to bring about this transformation. Learning Outcome: 01.03.a Describe the inductive and hypothetico-deductive methods of obtaining scientific knowledge.

Learning Outcome: 01.03.b Describe some aspects of experimental design that help to ensure objective and reliable resul ts.

Learning Outcome: 01.03.c Explain what is meant by hypothesis, fact, law, and theory in science.

Learning Outcome: 01.04.a Explain why evolution is relevant to understanding human form and function.

Learning Outcome: 01.04.b Define evolution and natural selection.

Learning Outcome: 01.04.c Describe some human characteristics that can be attributed to the tree- dwelling habits of earlier primates.

Learning Outcome: 01.04.d Describe some human characteristics that evolved later in connection with upright walking. Learning Outcome: 01.05.a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest.

Learning Outcome: 01.05.b Discuss the value of both reductionistic and holistic viewpoints to understanding human form and function.

Learning Outcome: 01.05.c Discuss the clinical significance of anatomical variation among humans.
Learning Outcome: 01.06.a State the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving objects.
Learning Outcome: 01.06.b Explain the importance of defining a reference man and woman.
Learning Outcome: 01.06.c Define homeostasis and explain why this concept is central to physiology.
Learning Outcome: 01.06.d Define negative feedback, given an example of it, and explain its importance to homeostasis. Learning Outcome: 01.06.e Define positive feedback and give examples of its beneficial and harmful effects.
Learning Outcome: 01.07.a Explain why modern anatomical terminology is so heavily based on Greek and Latin. Learning Outcome: 01.07.b Recognize eponyms when you see them.
Learning Outcome: 01.07.c Describe the efforts to achieve an internationally uniform anatomical terminology.
Learning Outcome: 01.07.d Break medical terms down into their basic word elements.

Learning Outcome: 01.07.f Relate singular noun forms to their plural and adjectival forms. 2 Section: 01.01 6 Section: 01.02 6 Section: 01.03 10 Section: 01.04 10 Section: 01.05 13 Section: 01.06 13 Section: 01.07 7 Topic: General 65

anatomy and physiology saladin 6th edition test bank