Campbell Biology 11th edition Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky, Reece Test Bank

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  • Published: 2016
  • ISBN-13: 978-0134093413
  • ISBN-10: 0134093410

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Campbell Biology 11th edition Urry, Reece Test Bank

Campbell Biology, 11e (Urry)

Chapter 5   The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

 

5.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following is nota polymer?

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) starch
  3. C) RNA
  4. D) DNA

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.1

 

2) How many molecules of water are released during the polymerization of a 20 monomer-long cellulose molecule?

  1. A) 10
  2. B) 19
  3. C) 20
  4. D) 40

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.1

 

3) Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?

  1. A) Dehydration reactions assemble polymers; hydrolysis reactions break polymers apart.
  2. B) Dehydration reactions eliminate water from membranes; hydrolysis reactions add water to membranes.
  3. C) Dehydration reactions and hydrolysis reactions assemble polymers from monomers.
  4. D) Hydrolysis reactions create polymers, and dehydration reactions create monomers.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.1

 

4) The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?

  1. A) C18H36O18
  2. B) C18H32O16
  3. C) C6H10O5
  4. D) C18H30O15

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.1

5) The difference between an aldose sugar and a ketose sugar is ________.

  1. A) the number of carbon atoms
  2. B) the position of the hydroxyl groups
  3. C) the position of the carbonyl group
  4. D) the ring form and the linear chain

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

6) Maltose is a disaccharide that can easily be digested into glucose molecules. The glycosidic linkage between glucose molecules in maltose is ________.

  1. A) β 1—4
  2. B) α 1—2
  3. C) α 1—4
  4. D) β 1—2

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

7) You would like to lose weight. Which of the following should be your preferred food group?

  1. A) Lactose and glucose
  2. B) Sucrose and starch
  3. C) Starch and fructose
  4. D) Cellulose and fructose

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.2

 

8) What is the major structural difference between starch and glycogen?

  1. A) the types of monosaccharide subunits in the molecules
  2. B) the type of glycosidic linkages in the molecule
  3. C) whether glucose is in the α or β form
  4. D) the amount of branching that occurs in the molecule

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

9) Starch is composed of ________.

  1. A) branched amylopectin and branched amylose
  2. B) unbranched amylopectin and unbranched amylose
  3. C) branched amylopectin and unbranched amylose
  4. D) unbranched amylopectin and branched amylose

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  5.2

10) Which polysaccharide is an important component in the structure of many animals and fungi?

  1. A) chitin
  2. B) cellulose
  3. C) amylopectin
  4. D) amylose

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

11) What does the term insoluble fiberrefer to on food packages?

  1. A) cellulose
  2. B) polypeptides
  3. C) starch
  4. D) amylopectin

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

12) A molecule with the chemical formula C6H12O6 is probably a ________.

  1. A) fatty acid
  2. B) polysaccharide
  3. C) nucleic acid
  4. D) monosaccharide

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

13) In carbohydrates, the ratio of hydrogen (H) to oxygen (O) is ________.

  1. A) 1:1
  2. B) 2:1
  3. C) 3:1
  4. D) 4:1

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

14) People who are lactose intolerant cannot extract energy from milk because ________.

  1. A) they are missing an enzyme
  2. B) lactose is too big to be digested by the enzymes
  3. C) milk is fermented to a by-product, which cannot be digested
  4. D) they are missing the bacteria that can digest lactose

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.2

15) Starch and cellulose ________.

  1. A) are polymers of glucose
  2. B) are cis andtransisomers of each other
  3. C) are used for energy storage in plants and animals
  4. D) are structural components of the plant cell wall

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

16) Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because ________.

  1. A) humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the α-glycosidic linkages of starch but not the β-glycosidic linkages of cellulose
  2. B) starch monomers are joined by covalent bonds, and cellulose monomers are joined by ionic bonds
  3. C) the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose
  4. D) Starch is softer than cellulose

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

17) Use the following figure to answer the question.

 

 

The molecule shown is ________.

  1. A) a hexose
  2. B) a pentose
  3. C) fructose
  4. D) maltose

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.2

 

18) A glycosidic linkage is analogous to which of the following in proteins?

  1. A) an amino group
  2. B) a peptide bond
  3. C) a disulfide bond
  4. D) a β pleated sheet

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.2 / 5.4

19) Which of the following statements is true for lipids?

  1. A) Lipids are true polymers.
  2. B) Waxes and pigments are not lipids.
  3. C) Lipids mix poorly with water.
  4. D) Lipids are true polymers and mix poorly with water.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.3

 

20) What makes lipids/fats hydrophobic?

  1. A) their long carbon skeleton
  2. B) the carboxyl group at one end of the molecule
  3. C) the glycerol moiety
  4. D) presence of relatively nonpolar C—H bonds

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.3

 

21) Cooking oil and gasoline (a hydrocarbon) are not amphipathic molecules because they ________.

  1. A) do not have a polar or charged region
  2. B) do not have a nonpolar region
  3. C) have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
  4. D) are highly reduced molecules

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.3

 

22) For lipids to be fluid at room temperature, they should have ________.

  1. A) single bonds only
  2. B) a higher number of glycerol molecules
  3. C) a higher number of cisdouble bonds
  4. D) a longer carbon chain

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.3

 

23) How do phospholipids interact with water molecules?

  1. A) The polar heads avoid water; the nonpolar tails attract water (because water is polar and opposites attract).
  2. B) Phospholipids do not interact with water because water is polar and lipids are nonpolar.
  3. C) The polar heads interact with water; the nonpolar tails do not.
  4. D) Phospholipids dissolve in water.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  5.3

24) Phospholipids and triglycerides both ________.

  1. A) contain serine or some other organic compound
  2. B) have three fatty acids
  3. C) have a glycerol backbone
  4. D) have a phosphate

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.3

 

25) Saturated fats ________.

  1. A) are more common in plants than in animals
  2. B) have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids
  3. C) are generally liquid at room temperature
  4. D) contain more hydrogen than unsaturated fats that consist of the same number of carbon atoms

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.3

 

26) The label on a container of margarine lists “hydrogenated vegetable oil” as the major ingredient. Hydrogenated vegetable oil ________.

  1. A) is solid at room temperature
  2. B) has more “kinks” in the fatty acid chains
  3. C) has fewer transfatty acids
  4. D) is less likely to clog arteries

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.3

 

27) Which of the following could be responsible for atherosclerosis and should be eliminated from diet for health reasons?

  1. A) butter
  2. B) olive oil
  3. C) liver and kidney organ meat
  4. D) butter, liver, and kidney organ meat

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.3

28) Use the following figure to answer the question.

 

 

The molecule illustrated in the figure ________.

  1. A) is a saturated fatty acid
  2. B) stores genetic information
  3. C) will be liquid at room temperature
  4. D) is a carbohydrate

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.3

 

29) Use the following figure to answer the question.

 

 

The molecule shown the figure is a ________.

  1. A) fatty acid
  2. B) steroid
  3. C) triacylglycerol
  4. D) phospholipid

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.3

 

30) Which parts of the amino acids X and Y are involved in the formation of a peptide bond?

 

X—Y

 

  1. A) amino group of X and carboxyl group of Y
  2. B) carboxyl group of X and amino group of Y
  3. C) carboxyl group of X and side chain of Y
  4. D) side chains of both X and Y

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.4

31) A tripeptide has ________.

  1. A) three amino acids and two peptide bonds
  2. B) three amino acids and three peptide bonds
  3. C) two amino acids and three peptide bonds
  4. D) four amino acids and three peptide bonds

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.3

 

32) What component of amino acid structure varies among different amino acids?

  1. A) the long carbon-hydrogen tails of the molecule
  2. B) the presence of a central C atom
  3. C) the components of the R group
  4. D) the glycerol molecule that forms the backbone of the amino acid

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.4

 

33) You disrupt all hydrogen bonds in a protein. What level of structure will be preserved?

  1. A) primary structure
  2. B) secondary structure
  3. C) tertiary structure
  4. D) quaternary structure

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.4

 

34) Which of the following statements is true about proteins?

  1. A) Denaturation leads to bond disruption, and the molecule turns into liquid
  2. B) Denaturation is always irreversible
  3. C) Final folded structure can reveal the steps of protein folding
  4. D) Some proteins form a complete 3-D structure only when they interact with their targets

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.4

 

35) You have just sequenced a new protein found in mice and observe that sulfur-containing cysteine residues occur at regular intervals. What is the significance of this finding?

  1. A) Cysteine residues are required for the formation of α helices and β pleated sheets.
  2. B) It will be important to include cysteine in the diet of the mice.
  3. C) Cysteine residues are involved in disulfide bridges that help form tertiary structure.
  4. D) Cysteine causes bends, or angles, to occur in the tertiary structure of proteins.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.4

36) Use the following information to answer the question.

 

“The native structure of hemoglobin (Hb) comprises of two α and two β subunits, each of which carries a heme group. There appear to be no previous studies that report the in-vitro folding and assembly of Hb from highly unfolded αand βglobin in a ‘one-pot’ reaction. One difficulty that has to be overcome for studies of this kind is the tendency of Hb to aggregate during refolding. This work demonstrates that denaturation of Hb in 40% acetonitrile at pH 10.0 is reversible.” (J Am Soc Mass Spectrum 2007, 18, 8-16)

 

Hemoglobin is ________.

  1. A) a tertiary protein with two polypeptides
  2. B) a quaternary protein with two polypeptides
  3. C) a tertiary protein with four polypeptides
  4. D) a quaternary protein with four polypeptides

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.4

 

37) Use the following information to answer the question.

 

“The native structure of hemoglobin (Hb) comprises of two α and two β subunits, each of which carries a heme group. There appear to be no previous studies that report the in-vitro folding and assembly of Hb from highly unfolded αand βglobin in a ‘one-pot’ reaction. One difficulty that has to be overcome for studies of this kind is the tendency of Hb to aggregate during refolding. This work demonstrates that denaturation of Hb in 40% acetonitrile at pH 10.0 is reversible.” (J Am Soc Mass Spectrum 2007, 18, 8-16)

 

How many heme groups are present in three hemoglobin protein molecules?

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 9
  4. D) 12

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.4

 

38) In sickle-cell disease, as a result of a single amino acid change, the mutant hemoglobin tetramers associate with each other and assemble into large fibers. Based on this information alone, we can conclude that sickle-cell hemoglobin exhibits ________.

  1. A) only altered primary structure
  2. B) only altered tertiary structure
  3. C) only altered quaternary structure
  4. D) altered primary structure and altered quaternary structure; the secondary and tertiary structures may or may not be altered

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.4

39) Use the following information to answer the question.

 

“The native structure of hemoglobin (Hb) comprises of two α and two β subunits, each of which carries a heme group. There appear to be no previous studies that report the in-vitro folding and assembly of Hb from highly unfolded αand βglobin in a ‘one-pot’ reaction. One difficulty that has to be overcome for studies of this kind is the tendency of Hb to aggregate during refolding. This work demonstrates that denaturation of Hb in 40% acetonitrile at pH 10.0 is reversible.” (J Am Soc Mass Spectrum 2007, 18, 8-16)

 

Hemoglobin, when subjected to 40% acetonitrile at pH 10.0, loses its quaternary structure, which means the ________.

  1. A) four α and β polypeptides dissociate
  2. B) peptide bonds between amino acids break
  3. C) α and β polypeptides lose their 3-D structure
  4. D) four α and β polypeptides dissociate, peptide bonds between amino acids, and α and β polypeptides lose their 3-D structure

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.4

 

40) Which of the following provides the information necessary to stipulate a protein’s 3-D shape?

  1. A) peptide bonds between different amino acids
  2. B) sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
  3. C) side chains of various amino acids
  4. D) number of water molecules in the vicinity

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.4

 

41) Misfolding of polypeptides is a serious problem in cells. Which of the following diseases are associated with an accumulation of misfolded polypeptides?

  1. A) Alzheimer’s
  2. B) Parkinson’s
  3. C) diabetes mellitus
  4. D) Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  5.4

42) Use the following figure to answer the question.

 

 

The chemical reaction illustrated ________.

  1. A) is a hydrolysis reaction
  2. B) results in a peptide bond
  3. C) joins two fatty acids together
  4. D) links two polymers to form a monomer

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.4

 

43) The relation between amino acid and polypeptide is similar to the relation between ________.

  1. A) nucleotide and nucleic acid
  2. B) triglycerides and steroids
  3. C) phospholipid and plasma membrane
  4. D) glycogen and glucose

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.5

 

44) Which of the following is a major difference between RNA and DNA?

  1. A) type of sugar
  2. B) type of phosphate
  3. C) type of purines
  4. D) type of glycosidic bond

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.5

 

45) When nucleotides polymerize to form a nucleic acid, ________.

  1. A) a covalent bond forms between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of a second
  2. B) a hydrogen bond forms between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of a second
  3. C) covalent bonds form between the bases of two nucleotides
  4. D) hydrogen bonds form between the bases of two nucleotides

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  5.5

46) Which of the following statements about the 5 end of a polynucleotide strand of RNA is correct?

  1. A) The 5 end has a hydroxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
  2. B) The 5 end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.
  3. C) The 5 end has phosphate attached to the number 5 carbon of the nitrogenous base.
  4. D) The 5 end has a carboxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.5

 

47) One of the primary functions of RNA molecules is to ________.

  1. A) transmit genetic information to offspring
  2. B) function in the synthesis of proteins
  3. C) make a copy of itself, thus ensuring genetic continuity
  4. D) act as a pattern or blueprint to form DNA

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.5

 

48) If 14C-labeled uracil is added to the growth medium of cells, what macromolecules will be labeled?

  1. A) DNA
  2. B) RNA
  3. C) both DNA and RNA
  4. D) polypeptides

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.5

 

49) Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?

  1. A) a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
  2. B) a nitrogenous base and a sugar
  3. C) a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a sugar
  4. D) a sugar and a purine or pyrimidine

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section: 5.5

 

50) In an RNA sample, ________.

  1. A) the number of thiamine may or may not equal the number of adenine
  2. B) the number of purine always equals the number of pyrimidine
  3. C) the number of thiamine always equals the number of uracil
  4. D) the number of purine may or may not equal the number of and pyrimidine

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.5

51) If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5′-ATTGCA-3′, the mRNA synthesized following the template will be ________.

  1. A) 5′-TAACGT-3′
  2. B) 5′-TGCAAT-3′
  3. C) 3′-UAACGU-5′
  4. D) 5′-UGCAAU-3′

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.5

 

52) The central rule of molecular biology states that ________.

  1. A) DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into protein
  2. B) DNA is translated into protein
  3. C) DNA is translated into RNA, which is transcribed into protein
  4. D) RNA is transcribed into protein

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.5

53) The following question is based on the 15 molecules illustrated in the figure.

 

 

Which molecule has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties and is found in plasma membranes?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 12
  4. D) 14

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.3

54) The following question is based on the 15 molecules illustrated in the figure.

 

 

Which of the following combinations of molecules illustrated could be linked to form a nucleotide?

  1. A) 1, 2, and 11
  2. B) 3, 7, and 8
  3. C) 5, 9, and 10
  4. D) 11, 12, and 13

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.5

55) The following question is based on the 15 molecules illustrated in the figure.

 

 

Which molecule is a saturated fatty acid?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 8
  4. D) 9

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  5.3

56) The following question is based on the 15 molecules illustrated in the figure.

 

 

Which of the following molecules is a purine nitrogenous base?

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 12
  4. D) 13

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  5.5

57) The following question is based on the 15 molecules illustrated in the figure.

 

 

Which of the following molecules act as building blocks (monomers) of polypeptides?

  1. A) 1, 4, and 6
  2. B) 2, 7, and 8
  3. C) 7, 8, and 13
  4. D) 11, 12, and 13

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.4

58) The following question is based on the 15 molecules illustrated in the figure.

 

 

Which of the following pairs of molecules could be joined together by a peptide bond in a dehydration reaction?

  1. A) 2 and 3
  2. B) 7 and 8
  3. C) 8 and 9
  4. D) 12 and 13

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.4

59) The following question is based on the 15 molecules illustrated in the figure.

 

 

A fat (or triacylglycerol) would be formed as a result of a dehydration reaction between ________.

  1. A) one molecule of 9 and three molecules of 10
  2. B) three molecules of 9 and one molecule of 10
  3. C) one molecule of 5 and three molecules of 9
  4. D) one molecule of 5 and three molecules of 10

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.3

60) The following question is based on the 15 molecules illustrated in the figure.

 

 

Which of the following molecules is the pentose sugar found in RNA?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 6
  3. C) 12
  4. D) 13

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  5.5

61) A new organism is discovered in the forests of Costa Rica. Scientists there determine that the polypeptide sequence of hemoglobin from the new organism has 72 amino acid differences from humans, 65 differences from a gibbon, 49 differences from a rat, and 5 differences from a frog. These data suggest that the new organism is more closely related to ________.

  1. A) humans than to frogs
  2. B) frogs than to humans
  3. C) rats than to frogs
  4. D) gibbons than to rats

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.6

 

62) Homo sapienshave 23 pairs of chromosomes. This implies that ________.

  1. A) 46 double-stranded DNA molecules are present in each somatic cell
  2. B) 23 single-stranded DNA molecules are present in each somatic cell
  3. C) 23 double-stranded DNA molecules are present in each somatic cell
  4. D) several hundreds of genes are present on DNA but not on the chromosomes

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section: 5.6

 

63) Absorbance at Various pH Levels

 

Time (sec)pH 4pH 5pH 6pH 7 pH 8pH 9
200.0030.0250.0550.1460.0050.004
400.0090.1090.1520.3000.0150.008
600.0120.1950.2550.4320.0380.010
800.0200.2150.3410.5520.0650.012
1000.0230.3330.4130.6590.0810.013
1200.0250.3600.4780.7550.0900.013

 

The table represents the results of an experiment where the effects of pH buffers on an enzyme found in saliva (amylase) were studied. A spectrophotometer set at 500 nm was used to measure absorbance at the various pH levels every 20 seconds for 2 minutes. The higher absorbance values would indicate greater enzyme activity. All experiments were conducted at the same temperature.

 

Which statement correctly identifies the result that the optimum pH for amylase function is 7?

  1. A) The pH with the lowest absorbance values would indicate the optimum pH for amylase since this pH does not affect the structure or function of the protein.
  2. B) The pH with the highest absorbance values would indicate the optimum pH for amylase since this pH does not affect the structure or function of the protein.
  3. C) At pH 9, the enzyme is denatured and will lose its function, but not its structure.
  4. D) At pH 4, the structure of the enzyme will be altered, and the enzyme would not be able to catalyze the reaction.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  5.4

5.2   Student Edition End-of-Chapter Questions

 

1) Which of the following categories includes all others in the list?

  1. A) disaccharide
  2. B) polysaccharide
  3. C) starch
  4. D) carbohydrate

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) The enzyme amylase can break glycosidic linkages between glucose monomers only if the monomers are in the form. Which of the following could amylase break down?

  1. A) glycogen, starch, and amylopectin
  2. B) glycogen and cellulose
  3. C) cellulose and chitin
  4. D) starch, chitin, and cellulose

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) Which of the following is true of unsaturatedfats?

  1. A) They are more common in animals than in plants.
  2. B) They have double bonds in their fatty acid chains.
  3. C) They generally solidify at room temperature.
  4. D) They contain more hydrogen than do saturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) The structural level of a protein leastaffected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the

  1. A) primary level.
  2. B) secondary level.
  3. C) tertiary level.
  4. D) quaternary level.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5) Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes?

  1. A) The two strands of the double helix would separate.
  2. B) The phosphodiester linkages of the polynucleotide backbone would be broken.
  3. C) The pyrimidines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.
  4. D) All bases would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

6) The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a polymer made by linking ten glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?

  1. A) C60H120O60
  2. B) C60H102O51
  3. C) C60H100O50
  4. D) C60H111O51

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

7) Which of the following pairs of base sequences could form a short stretch of a normal double helix of DNA?

  1. A) 5′-AGCT-3′ with 5′-TCGA-3′
  2. B) 5′-GCGC-3′ with 5′-TATA-3′
  3. C) 5′-ATGC-3′ with 5′-GCAT-3′
  4. D) All of these pairs are correct.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Campbell Biology 11th edition Urry, Reece Test Bank

Table of Contents

1 Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry

Inquiring About Life

CONCEPT 1.1 The study of life reveals common themes

CONCEPT 1.2 The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life

CONCEPT 1.3 In studying nature, scientists make observations and form and test hypotheses

CONCEPT 1.4 Science benefits from a cooperative approach and diverse viewpoints

UNIT 1 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 

2 The Chemical Context of Life

A Chemical Connection to Biology

CONCEPT 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds

CONCEPT 2.2 An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms

CONCEPT 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms

CONCEPT 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds

3 Water and Life

The Molecule That Supports All of Life

CONCEPT 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding

CONCEPT 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s suitability for life

CONCEPT 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms

4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

Carbon: The Backbone of Life

CONCEPT 4.1 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds

CONCEPT 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms

CONCEPT 4.3 A few chemical groups are key to molecular function

5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

The Molecules of Life

CONCEPT 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers

CONCEPT 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material

CONCEPT 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules

CONCEPT 5.4 Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions

CONCEPT 5.5 Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information

CONCEPT 5.6 Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications

UNIT 2 THE CELL 

6 A Tour of the Cell

The Fundamental Units of Life

CONCEPT 6.1 Biologists use microscopes and biochemistry to study cells

CONCEPT 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions

CONCEPT 6.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes

CONCEPT 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions

CONCEPT 6.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another

CONCEPT 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell

CONCEPT 6.7 Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities

CONCEPT 6.8 A cell is greater than the sum of its parts

7 Membrane Structure and Function

Life at the Edge

CONCEPT 7.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins

CONCEPT 7.2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability

CONCEPT 7.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment

CONCEPT 7.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients

CONCEPT 7.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis

8 An Introduction to Metabolism

The Energy of Life

CONCEPT 8.1 An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics

CONCEPT 8.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously

CONCEPT 8.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions

CONCEPT 8.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers

CONCEPT 8.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism

9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Life Is Work

CONCEPT 9.1 Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels

CONCEPT 9.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

CONCEPT 9.3 After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules

CONCEPT 9.4 During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis

CONCEPT 9.5 Fermentation and anaerobic respiration enable cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen

CONCEPT 9.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways

10 Photosynthesis

The Process That Feeds the Biosphere

CONCEPT 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food

CONCEPT 10.2 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH

CONCEPT 10.3 The Calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar

CONCEPT 10.4 Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates

CONCEPT 10.5Life depends on photosynthesis

11 Cell Communication

Cellular Messaging

CONCEPT 11.1 External signals are converted to responses within the cell

CONCEPT 11.2 Reception: A signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape

CONCEPT 11.3 Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell

CONCEPT 11.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of transcription or cytoplasmic activities

CONCEPT 11.5 Apoptosis integrates multiple cell-signaling pathways

12 The Cell Cycle

The Key Roles of Cell Division

CONCEPT 12.1 Most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells

CONCEPT 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle

CONCEPT 12.3 The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system

UNIT 3 GENETICS 

13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Variations on a Theme

CONCEPT 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes

CONCEPT 13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles

CONCEPT 13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid

CONCEPT 13.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution

14 Mendel and the Gene Idea

Drawing from the Deck of Genes

CONCEPT 14.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance

CONCEPT 14.2 Probability laws govern Mendelian inheritance

CONCEPT 14.3 Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics

CONCEPT 14.4 Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance

15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

Locating Genes Along Chromosomes

CONCEPT 15.1 Morgan showed that Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes: scientific inquiry

CONCEPT 15.2 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance

CONCEPT 15.3 Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located near each other on the same chromosome

CONCEPT 15.4 Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders

CONCEPT 15.5 Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to standard Mendelian inheritance

16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Life’s Operating Instructions

CONCEPT 16.1 DNA is the genetic material

CONCEPT 16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair

CONCEPT 16.3 A chromosome consists of a DNA molecule packed together with proteins

17 Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein

The Flow of Genetic Information

CONCEPT 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation

CONCEPT 17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA: a closer look

CONCEPT 17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription

CONCEPT 17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide: a closer look

CONCEPT 17.5 Mutations of one or a few nucleotides can affect protein structure and function

18 Regulation of Gene Expression

Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder

CONCEPT 18.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating transcription

CONCEPT 18.2 Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at many stages

CONCEPT 18.3 Noncoding RNAs play multiple roles in controlling gene expression

CONCEPT 18.4 A program of differential gene expression leads to the different cell types in a multicellular organism

CONCEPT 18.5 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle control

19 Viruses

A Borrowed Life

CONCEPT 19.1 A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat

CONCEPT 19.2 Viruses replicate only in host cells

CONCEPT 19.3 Viruses and prions are formidable pathogens in animals and plants

20 DNA Tools and Biotechnology

The DNA Toolbox

CONCEPT 20.1 DNA sequencing and DNA cloning are valuable tools for genetic engineering and biological inquiry

CONCEPT 20.2 Biologists use DNA technology to study gene expression and function

CONCEPT 20.3 Cloned organisms and stem cells are useful for basic research and other applications

CONCEPT 20.4 The practical applications of DNA-based biotechnology affect our lives in many ways

21 Genomes and Their Evolution

Reading the Leaves from the Tree of Life

CONCEPT 21.1 The Human Genome Project fostered development of faster, less expensive sequencing techniques

CONCEPT 21.2 Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze genomes and their functions

CONCEPT 21.3 Genomes vary in size, number of genes, and gene density

CONCEPT 21.4 Multicellular eukaryotes have a lot of noncoding DNA and many multigene families

CONCEPT 21.5 Duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of DNA contribute to genome evolution

CONCEPT 21.6 Comparing genome sequences provides clues to evolution and development

UNIT 4 MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION 

22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

Endless Forms Most Beautiful

CONCEPT 22.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species

CONCEPT 22.2 Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life

CONCEPT 22.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence

23 The Evolution of Populations

The Smallest Unit of Evolution

CONCEPT 23.1 Genetic variation makes evolution possible

CONCEPT 23.2 The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving

CONCEPT 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population

CONCEPT 23.4 Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution

24 The Origin of Species

That “Mystery of Mysteries”

CONCEPT 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation

CONCEPT 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation

CONCEPT 24.3 Hybrid zones reveal factors that cause reproductive isolation

CONCEPT 24.4 Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can result from changes in few or many genes

25 The History of Life on Earth

A Surprise in the Desert 

CONCEPT 25.1 Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible

CONCEPT 25.2 The fossil record documents the history of life

CONCEPT 25.3 Key events in life’s history include the origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms and the colonization of land

CONCEPT 25.4 The rise and fall of groups of organisms reflect differences in speciation and extinction rates

CONCEPT 25.5 Major changes in body form can result from changes in the sequences and regulation of developmental genes

CONCEPT 25.6 Evolution is not goal oriented

UNIT 5 THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 

26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Investigating the Tree of Life

CONCEPT 26.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships

CONCEPT 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data

CONCEPT 26.3 Shared characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees

CONCEPT 26.4 An organism’s evolutionary history is documented in its genome

CONCEPT 26.5 Molecular clocks help track evolutionary time

CONCEPT 26.6 Our understanding of the tree of life continues to change based on new data

27 Bacteria and Archaea

Masters of Adaptation

CONCEPT 27.1 Structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success

CONCEPT 27.2 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes

CONCEPT 27.3 Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes

CONCEPT 27.4 Prokaryotes have radiated into a diverse set of lineages

CONCEPT 27.5 Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere

CONCEPT 27.6 Prokaryotes have both beneficial and harmful impacts on humans

28 Protists

Living Small

CONCEPT 28.1 Most eukaryotes are single-celled organisms

CONCEPT 28.2 Excavates include protists with modified mitochondria and protists with unique flagella

CONCEPT 28.3 SAR is a highly diverse group of protists defined by DNA similarities

CONCEPT 28.4 Red algae and green algae are the closest relatives of land plants

CONCEPT 28.5 Unikonts include protists that are closely related to fungi and animals

CONCEPT 28.6 Protists play key roles in ecological communities

29 Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land

The Greening of Earth

CONCEPT 29.1 Plants evolved from green algae

CONCEPT 29.2 Mosses and other nonvascular plants have life cycles dominated by gametophytes

CONCEPT 29.3 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants were the first plants to grow tall

30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants

Transforming the World

CONCEPT 30.1 Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land

CONCEPT 30.2 Gymnosperms bear “naked” seeds, typically on cones

CONCEPT 30.3 The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include flowers and fruits

CONCEPT 30.4 Human welfare depends on seed plants

31 Fungi

Mighty Mushrooms

CONCEPT 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption

CONCEPT 31.2 Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles

CONCEPT 31.3 The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist

CONCEPT 31.4 Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages

CONCEPT 31.5 Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human welfare

32 An Overview of Animal Diversity

A Kingdom of Consumers

CONCEPT 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers

CONCEPT 32.2 The history of animals spans more than half a billion years

CONCEPT 32.3 Animals can be characterized by “body plans”

CONCEPT 32.4  Views of animal phylogeny continue to be shaped by new molecular and morphological data

33 An Introduction to Invertebrates

A Dragon Without a Backbone

CONCEPT 33.1 Sponges are basal animals that lack tissues

CONCEPT 33.2 Cnidarians are an ancient phylum of eumetazoans

CONCEPT 33.3 Lophotrochozoans, a clade identified by molecular data, have the widest range of animal body forms

CONCEPT 33.4 Ecdysozoans are the most species-rich animal group

CONCEPT 33.5 Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes

34 The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates

Half a Billion Years of Backbones

CONCEPT 34.1 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord

CONCEPT 34.2 Vertebrates are chordates that have a backbone

CONCEPT 34.3 Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have jaws

CONCEPT 34.4 Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs

CONCEPT 34.5 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg

CONCEPT 34.6 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk

CONCEPT 34.7 Humans are mammals that have a large brain and bipedal locomotion

UNIT 6 PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION 

35 Vascular Plant Structure, Growth, and Development

Are Plants Computers?

CONCEPT 35.1 Plants have a hierarchical organization consisting of organs, tissues, and cells

CONCEPT 35.2 Different meristems generate new cells for primary and secondary growth

CONCEPT 35.3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots

CONCEPT 35.4 Secondary growth increases the diameter of stems and roots in woody plants

CONCEPT 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation produce the plant body

36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants

A Whole Lot of Shaking Going On

CONCEPT 36.1 Adaptations for acquiring resources were key steps in the evolution of vascular plants

CONCEPT 36.2 Different mechanisms transport substances over short or long distances

CONCEPT 36.3 Transpiration drives the transport of water and minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem

CONCEPT 36.4 The rate of transpiration is regulated by stomata

CONCEPT 36.5 Sugars are transported from sources to sinks via the phloem

CONCEPT 36.6 The symplast is highly dynamic

37 Soil and Plant Nutrition

The Corkscrew Carnivore

CONCEPT 37.1 Soil contains a living, complex ecosystem

CONCEPT 37.2 Plant roots absorb essential elements from the soil

CONCEPT 37.3 Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms

38 Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology

Flowers of Deceit

CONCEPT 38.1 Flowers, double fertilization, and fruits are key features of the angiosperm life cycle

CONCEPT 38.2 Flowering plants reproduce sexually, asexually, or both

CONCEPT 38.3 People modify crops by breeding and genetic engineering

39 Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals

Stimuli and a Stationary Life

CONCEPT 39.1 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception to response

CONCEPT 39.2 Plant hormones help coordinate growth, development, and responses to stimuli

CONCEPT 39.3 Responses to light are critical for plant success

CONCEPT 39.4 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli other than light

CONCEPT 39.5 Plants respond to attacks by pathogens and herbivores

UNIT 7 ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION 

40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function

Diverse Forms, Common Challenges

CONCEPT 40.1 Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization

CONCEPT 40.2 Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals

CONCEPT 40.3 Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior

CONCEPT 40.4 Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment

41 Animal Nutrition

The Need to Feed

CONCEPT 41.1 An animal’s diet must supply chemical energy, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients

CONCEPT 41.2 Food processing involves ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination

CONCEPT 41.3 Organs specialized for sequential stages of food processing form the mammalian digestive system

CONCEPT 41.4 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems correlate with diet

CONCEPT 41.5 Feedback circuits regulate digestion, energy storage, and appetite

42 Circulation and Gas Exchange

Trading Places

CONCEPT 42.1 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body

CONCEPT 42.2 Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals

CONCEPT 42.3 Patterns of blood pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood vessels

CONCEPT 42.4 Blood components function in exchange, transport, and defense

CONCEPT 42.5 Gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces

CONCEPT 42.6 Breathing ventilates the lungs

CONCEPT 42.7 Adaptations for gas exchange include pigments that bind and transport gases

43 The Immune System

Recognition and Response

CONCEPT 43.1 In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on traits common to groups of pathogens

CONCEPT 43.2 In adaptive immunity, receptors provide pathogen-specific recognition

CONCEPT 43.3 Adaptive immunity defends against infection of body fluids and body cells

CONCEPT 43.4 Disruptions in immune system function can elicit or exacerbate disease

44 Osmoregulation and Excretion

A Balancing Act

CONCEPT 44.1 Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes

CONCEPT 44.2 An animal’s nitrogenous wastes reflect its phylogeny and habitat

CONCEPT 44.3 Diverse excretory systems are variations on a tubular theme

CONCEPT 44.4 The nephron is organized for stepwise processing of blood filtrate

CONCEPT 44.5 Hormonal circuits link kidney function, water balance, and blood pressure

45 Hormones and the Endocrine System

The Body’s Long-Distance Regulators

CONCEPT 45.1 Hormones and other signaling molecules bind to target receptors, triggering specific response pathways

CONCEPT 45.2 Feedback regulation and coordination with the nervous system are common in hormone pathways

CONCEPT 45.3 Endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli in regulating homeostasis, development, and behavior

46 Animal Reproduction

Let Me Count the Ways

CONCEPT 46.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom

CONCEPT 46.2 Fertilization depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of the same species

CONCEPT 46.3 Reproductive organs produce and transport gametes

CONCEPT 46.4 The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates mammalian reproduction

CONCEPT 46.5 In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully within the mother’s uterus

47 Animal Development

A Body-Building Plan

CONCEPT 47.1 Fertilization and cleavage initiate embryonic development

CONCEPT 47.2 Morphogenesis in animals involves specific changes in cell shape, position, and survival

CONCEPT 47.3 Cytoplasmic determinants and inductive signals regulate cell fate

48 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Lines of Communication

CONCEPT 48.1 Neuron structure and organization reflect function in information transfer

CONCEPT 48.2 Ion pumps and ion channels establish the resting potential of a neuron

CONCEPT 48.3 Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons

CONCEPT 48.4 Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses

49 Nervous Systems

Command and Control Center

CONCEPT 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells

CONCEPT 49.2 The vertebrate brain is regionally specialized

CONCEPT 49.3 The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions

CONCEPT 49.4 Changes in synaptic connections underlie memory and learning

CONCEPT 49.5 Many nervous system disorders can be explained in molecular terms

50 Sensory and Motor Mechanisms

Sense and Sensibility

CONCEPT 50.1 Sensory receptors transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the central nervous system

CONCEPT 50.2 In hearing and equilibrium, mechanoreceptors detect moving fluid or settling particles

CONCEPT 50.3 The diverse visual receptors of animals depend on light-absorbing pigments

CONCEPT 50.4 The senses of taste and smell rely on similar sets of sensory receptors

CONCEPT 50.5 The physical interaction of protein filaments is required for muscle function

CONCEPT 50.6 Skeletal systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion

51 Animal Behavior

The How and Why of Animal Activity

CONCEPT 51.1 Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors

CONCEPT 51.2 Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior

CONCEPT 51.3 Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain diverse behaviors

CONCEPT 51.4 Genetic analyses and the concept of inclusive fitness provide a basis for studying the evolution of behavior

UNIT 8 ECOLOGY 

52 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Discovering Ecology

CONCEPT 52.1 Earth’s climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly

CONCEPT 52.2 The distribution of terrestrial biomes is controlled by climate and disturbance

CONCEPT 52.3 Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth

CONCEPT 52.4 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species

CONCEPT 52.5Ecological change and evolution affect one another over long and short periods of time

53 Population Ecology

Turtle Tracks

CONCEPT 53.1 Biotic and abiotic factors affectpopulation density, dispersion, and demographics

CONCEPT 53.2 The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment

CONCEPT 53.3 The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity

CONCEPT 53.4 Life history traits are products of natural selection

CONCEPT 53.5 Density-dependent factors regulate population growth

CONCEPT 53.6 The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing rapidly

54 Community Ecology

Communities in Motion

CONCEPT 54.1 Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved

CONCEPT 54.2 Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities

CONCEPT 54.3 Disturbance influences species diversity and composition

CONCEPT 54.4 Biogeographic factors affect community diversity

CONCEPT 54.5 Pathogens alter community structure locally and globally

55 Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Transformed to Tundra

CONCEPT 55.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems

CONCEPT 55.2 Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems

CONCEPT 55.3 Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient

CONCEPT 55.4 Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems

CONCEPT 55.5 Restoration ecologists return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state

56 Conservation Biology and Global Change

Psychedelic Treasure

CONCEPT 56.1 Human activities threaten Earth’s biodiversity

CONCEPT 56.2 Population conservation focuses on population size, genetic diversity, and critical habitat

CONCEPT 56.3 Landscape and regional conservation help sustain biodiversity

CONCEPT 56.4 Earth is changing rapidly as a result of human actions

CONCEPT 56.5 Sustainable development can improve human lives while conserving biodiversity