Child Health Nursing: Partnering with Children and Families 2nd edition Ball, Bindler, Cowen Test Bank

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  • Published: 2009
  • ISBN-10: 0135153816
  • ISBN-13: 978-0135153819

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child health nursing 2nd edition ball test bank

Child Health Nursing Partnering with Children and Families 2e Ball, Bindler, Cowen

Chapter 1

The nurse in a pediatric acute care unit is assigned the following tasks. Based on recognition that the action defined requires training beyond the preparation of a registered nurse, the nurse would refuse to:

1. Diagnose an 8-year-old with acute otitis media and prescribe an antibiotic.

2. Listen to the concerns of an adolescent about being out of school for a lengthy surgical recovery.

3. Provide information to a mother of a newly diagnosed 4-year-old diabetic about local support group options.

4. Diagnose a 6-year-old with diversional activity deficit related to placement in isolation.

Correct answer: 1

Rationale:

Advanced practice nurse practitioners perform assessment, diagnosis, and management of health conditions. The role of the pediatric nurse includes providing nursing assessment, direct nursing care interventions, client and family education at developmentally appropriate levels, client advocacy, case management, minimization of distress, and enhancement of coping.
Listening to concerns is within the expectations of a nurse in an acute care unit.
Providing information about support groups is within the expectations of the acute care unit.
Nursing diagnoses are the responsibility of the acute care unit.
Cognitive Level:

Application

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nursing Process:

Implementation

Learning Outcome 1-1: Describe and differentiate between the general and advanced practice nurse roles in child health nursing.

Despite the availability of State Children’s Health Insurance Programs (SCHIP), many eligible children are not enrolled. The nursing intervention that can best help eligible children to become enrolled is:

1. Assessment of the details of the family’s income and expenditures.

2. Case management to limit costly, unnecessary duplication of services.

3. To advocate for the child by encouraging the family to investigate its SCHIP eligibility.

4 To educate the family about the need for keeping regular well-child visit appointments.

Correct answer: 3

Rationale:

1. Financial assessment is more commonly the function of a social worker.

The case management activity mentioned will not provide a source of funding.
In the role of an advocate, a nurse will advance the interests of another; by suggesting that the family investigate its SCHIP eligibility, the nurse is directing their action toward the child’s best interest.
While it is the nurse’s responsibility to educate the family, this intervention is not what will best help eligible children to become enrolled.
Cognitive Level:

Analysis

Client Need:

Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nursing Process:

Intervention

Learning Outcome 1-1: Describe and differentiate between the general and advanced practice nurse roles in child health nursing.

A nurse is examining different nursing roles. Which best illustrates an advanced practice nursing role?

1. A registered nurse who is the manager of a large pediatric unit

2. A registered nurse who is the circulating nurse in surgery

3. A clinical nurse specialist working as a staff nurse on a medical–surgical pediatric unit

4. A clinical nurse specialist with whom other nurses consult for her expertise in caring for high-risk children

Correct answer: 4

Rationale:

A registered nurse who is the manager of a large pediatric unit, or one who is a circulating nurse in surgery, is defined as a professional nurse, and has graduated from an accredited program in nursing and completed the licensure examination.
A registered nurse who is the manager of a large pediatric unit, or one who is a circulating nurse in surgery, is defined as a professional nurse, and has graduated from an accredited program in nursing and completed the licensure examination
A clinical nurse specialist working as a staff nurse on a medical–surgical pediatric unit might have the qualifications for an advanced practice nursing staff but is not working in that capacity.

A clinical nurse specialist with whom other nurses consult for expertise in caring for high-risk children would define an advanced practice nursing role. Advanced practice nurses have specialized knowledge and competence in a specific clinical area, and have earned a master’s degree.
Cognitive Level:

Analysis

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process:

Assessment

Learning Outcome 1-1: Describe and differentiate between the general and advanced practice nurse roles in child health nursing.

The major focus of the nurse practitioner is on:

1. Leadership.

2. Physical and psychosocial clinical assessment.

3. Independent care of the high-risk chronic child.

4. Tertiary prevention

Correct answer: 2

Rationale:

Leadership might be a quality of the NP, but it is not the major focus.
Physical and psychosocial clinical assessment is the major focus of the nurse practitioner (NP), who provides care in many different clinical settings.
NPs cannot provide independent care of the high-risk chronic child, but must work in collaboration with a physician.
The NP usually does not do tertiary prevention as a major focus.

Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome 1-1: Describe and differentiate between the general and advanced practice nurse roles in child health nursing.

The role of the professional registered nurse as an educator is to:

1. provideppprvode Provide primary care for high-risk children who are in hospital settings.

2. Provide primary care for healthy children.

3. Work toward the goal of informed choices with the family.

4. O

Correct answer: 3

Rationale:

The nurse educator does not provide primary care for high-risk children in hospital settings.
The nurse educator does not provide primary care for healthy children.
The educator works with the family toward the goal of making informed choices through education and explanation.
The nurse educator does not obtain a physician consultation for technical procedures.
Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome 1-1: Describe and differentiate between the general and advanced practice nurse roles in child health nursing.

The nurse recognizes that the pediatric client is from a cultural background different from that of the hospital staff. The nurse identifies this as a potential problem, and sets a nursing goal to:

1. Overlook or minimize the cultural differences that exist.

2. Facilitate the family’s ability to comply with the care needed through education.

3. Impose the nurse’s cultural perspective on this family.

4. Encourage complementary beneficial cultural practices as primary therapies.

Correct answer: 2

Rationale:

Since culture develops from social learning, attempts to ignore or minimize cultural consideration will result in mistrust, suspicion, or offenses that can have negative effects upon the health of children by reducing the resources available to promote health and prevent illness.
The incorporation of the family’s cultural perspective into the care plan through education is most likely to result in the family’s ability to accept medical care and comply with the regimen prescribed.
It is not appropriate for the nurse to impose any personal beliefs or perspectives on families.
Complementary therapy may be used later if other primary therapies prove to be ineffective.

Cognitive Level:

Analysis

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nursing Process:

Planning

Learning Outcome 1-2: Understand the historical and current societal influences on pediatric health care and nursing practice.

The nurse demonstrates family-centered care by:
Encouraging family visitation.
Assuming total care for the client.
Expecting the child to perform self-care in activities of daily living.
Limiting visitation to four time periods per day.
Correct answer: 1

Rationale:

Encouraging visitation recognizes the family as a constant influence and support in a child’s life, and is the foundation for developing a trusting relationship with families.
Family-centered care does not involve assuming total care for the client.
Family-centered care involves more than expectations for the child.
Limiting visitation is the exact opposite of providing family-centered care.
Cognitive Level: Comprehension

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process: Application

Learning Outcome 1-2: Understand the historical and current societal influences on pediatric health care and nursing practice.

A 7-year-old child has been admitted for acute appendicitis. The parents are questioning the nurse about expectations during the child’s recovery. Which information tool would be most useful in answering a parent’s questions about timing of key events?

1. Healthy People 2010

2. Critical clinical pathways

3. Child mortality statistics

4. National clinical practice guidelines

Healthy People 2010 contains objectives set by the U.S. government to improve the health and reduce the incidence of death in the twenty-first century
Critical clinical pathways are interdisciplinary documents provided by a hospital to suggest ideal sequencing and timing of events and interventions for specific diseases to improve efficiency of care and enhance recovery. These pathways serve as models outlining the typical hospital stay for individuals with specified conditions.
Child mortality statistics can be compared with those from other decades for the evaluation of achievement toward health care goals.
National clinical practice guidelines promote uniformity in care for specific disease conditions by suggesting expected outcomes from specific interventions.

Cognitive Level: Analysis

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome 1-2: Understand the historical and current societal influences on pediatric health care and nursing practice.

Pediatric health care occurs along a continuum that reflects not only the settings of care, but also:
The recommendations of health care providers.
The home setting.
The complexity and range of care needed by individual children and their families.
Prenatal care.
Correct answer: 3

Rationale:

The continuum of pediatric health care does not include the recommendations of health care providers.
The home setting is not included in the pediatric health care continuum.
Pediatric health care occurs along a continuum that reflects not only the various settings of care but also the complexity and range of care needed by individual children and their families. For example, all children need health promotion and maintenance services; some will also need care for chronic conditions, acute illnesses, and injuries.
Prenatal care is not considered part of the continuum of health care, since the main focus is on the health of the mother.
Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment: Continuity of Care

Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome 1-2: Understand the historical and current societal influences on pediatric health care and nursing practice.

The telephone triage nurse at a pediatric clinic knows that each call is important. However, recognizing that infant deaths are most frequent in this group, the nurse must be extra attentive during the call from the parent of an infant who is:

Younger than 3 weeks old.

2. Of a Native American family.

3. Of a non-Hispanic black family.

4. Between 6 and 8 months old.

Almost two-thirds of all infant deaths occur during the first 28 days after birth.
Native American and Alaskan natives experience an infant mortality rate of 8.3 per 100,000 live births.
During 2000, the infant mortality statistics for non-Hispanic blacks was 13.6 per 100,000 live births.
About two-thirds of infant deaths occur much earlier—in the first 28 days of life.

Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nursing Process: Planning

When discussing injury prevention with the parents of a toddler, which statement indicates teaching has been successful? “The leading cause of death in children is:
“Congenital anomalies.”
“Infectious disease.”
“Unintentional injury.”
“Cancer.”
Correct answer: 3

The leading cause of death in children is unintentional injuries, not congenital anomalies.
Infectious disease is not the cause of most deaths in children. It is unintentional injuries.
The most common cause of death for children between 1 and 19 years of age is unintentional injury from motor vehicle crashes, drowning, fire, burns, firearms, and suffocation.
Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process: Evaluation

With regard to child mortality statistics, which nursing intervention would be most effective in decreasing mortality from unintentional injury?
Educating parents about the benefits of immunizations
Teaching parents about proper use of vehicle restraint seats
Encouraging parents to obtain genetic counseling
Teaching children about dangers of contact sports
Correct answer: 2

Since the most common cause of mortality in children is unintentional injury, educating about immunizations will not be most effective.
The most common cause of death for children between 1 and 19 years of age is unintentional injury. The major causes of death from unintentional injury in childhood include motor vehicle crashes, drowning, fires and burns, firearms, and suffocation.
Obtaining genetic counseling will not decrease mortality from unintentional injuries.
Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment: Accident Prevention

Nursing Process: Implementation

With regard to child mortality statistics, which nursing intervention would be most effective in decreasing post-neonatal mortality?
Educating parents on acceptable feeding techniques
Educating parents on the importance of positioning the baby on his back whenever sleeping
Teaching parents about “baby-proofing” their home
Providing support for first-time mothers
Correct answer: 2

Teaching acceptable feeding techniques is not the most effective intervention to decrease post-neonatal mortality.
Sudden infant death syndrome accounts for nearly 28% of deaths to infants in the post-neonatal period (between 1 and 12 months of age). Positioning babies on their backs to sleep has significantly reduced the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome.
Baby-proofing homes will not decrease post-neonatal mortality.
Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process: Implementation

Despite the availability of State Children’s Health Insurance Program, families often fail to obtain coverage for eligible children because:
They believe their income is too high to qualify.
They do not see the importance of insurance coverage.
Families do not have adequate time to complete the enrollment process.
Parents do not value medical interventions for their children.
Correct answer: 1

Rationale:

Despite availability of SCHIP, many eligible children are not enrolled. Reasons families have not enrolled include belief that their income is too high to qualify; they have obtained other insurance; they have difficulty with the application process and required documentation; and they lack skills in negotiating the system to get coverage.
Most families do value insurance coverage, so this is not the reason for failing to obtain SCHIP coverage.
Families have adequate time to complete the enrollment process, but some do not believe they will qualify, and so do not try to enroll.
Parents do value medical interventions for their children, but some do not believe they can qualify, believing that their income is too high.
Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nursing Process: Assessment

A 12-year-old pediatric client is in need of surgery. The health care member who is legally responsible for obtaining informed consent for an invasive procedure is the:

1. Nurse.

2. Physician.

3. Unit secretary.

4. Social worker.

Rationale:

A nurse cannot legally obtain informed consent for a procedure, but can witness the signature on the consent form.
Informed consent is legal preauthorization for an invasive procedure. It is the physician’s legal responsibility to obtain this, because it consists of an explanation about the medical condition, a detailed description of treatment plans, the expected benefits and risks related to the proposed treatment plan, alternative treatment options, the client’s questions, and the guardian’s right to refuse treatment.
The unit secretary cannot obtain or sign as a witness for an informed consent document.
A social worker is not responsible for obtaining informed consent for an invasive procedure.
Cognitive Level: Comprehension

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome 1-4: Contrast the policies for obtaining informed consent of minors with policies for adults.

A child is being prepared for an invasive procedure in the presence of the child’s babysitter. The single mother of the child has legal custody, but is not present. After details of the procedure are explained, the legal informed consent for treatment on behalf of a minor child will be obtained from:

1. The divorced parent without custody.

2. The cohabitating unmarried boyfriend of the child’s mother.

3. A grandparent who lives in the home with the child.

4. The babysitter with written proxy consent.

Correct answer: 4

Rationale:

In the case of divorced parents, the parent with custody might be the only parent allowed by some states to give informed consent.
Residence in the same household with a child does not authorize an adult to sign consent for treatment.

Residence in the same household with a child does not authorize an adult to sign consent for treatment.

A parent may grant proxy consent in writing to another adult so that children are not denied necessary health care.
Cognitive Level:

Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process:

Planning

Learning Outcome 1-4: Contrast the policies for obtaining informed consent of minors with policies for adults.

A 12-year-old child is being admitted to the unit for a surgical procedure. The child is accompanied by two parents and a younger sibling. The level of involvement in treatment decision making for this child is:

1. That of an emancipated minor.

2. That of a mature minor.

3. That of assent.

4. None.

Rationale:

An emancipated minor is a self-supporting adolescent who is not subject to the control of a parent or guardian.
A mature minor is a 14- or 15-year-old whom the state law designates as being able to understand medical risks and who is thus permitted to give informed consent for treatment.
Assent requires the ability to generally understand what procedure and treatments are planned, to understand what participation is required, and to make a statement of agreement or disagreement with the plan. Usually, in Piaget’s stage of formal operations, 11–13-year-olds should be able to problem-solve using abstract concepts, and are able to give valid assent when parents sign the informed consent.
The child has some involvement at age 12, so this answer is not correct.
Cognitive Level:

Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process:

Planning

Learning Outcome 1-4: Contrast the policies for obtaining informed consent of minors with policies for adults.

When parents are divorced and have joint custody, who may give informed consent for treatment of the child?
Both parents must agree and give consent.
The custodial parent
Either parent
Designated medical social worker
Correct answer: 3

Rationale:

It is not necessary for both parents to agree and give consent.
The non-custodial parent also may give informed consent in most states.
Informed consent is a formal authorization by the child’s parent or guardian allowing an invasive procedure. When parents are divorced, and have joint custody, either parent may give informed consent in most cases.
A designated medical social worker cannot give informed consent for a child unless that child has been taken into her department’s custody.
Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome 1-4: Contrast the policies for obtaining informed consent of minors with policies for adults.

Emancipated minors are:
Economically self-supporting adolescents under 18 years of age, no longer living at home, and not subject to parental control.
Beginning to understand treatment risks.
Designated when child and parents do not agree.
Declared when there is a potential conflict of interest between the child and parents.
Correct answer: 1

Rationale:

Emancipated minors are economically self-supporting adolescents under 18 years of age, no longer living at home, and not subject to parental control. They can legally give informed consent for themselves.
Emancipated minors have more knowledge than just beginning understanding. They are solely responsible for themselves, and can give informed consent.
Emancipated minors are not designated only when the parents and child have a disagreement, but when the minor becomes solely responsible for all aspects of her life.
Emancipated minors are not declared as such only when there is a conflict of interest between the child and parents. The child has sole responsibility for all aspects of her life.
Cognitive Level: Comprehension

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome 1-4: Contrast the policies for obtaining informed consent of minors with policies for adults.

A nurse is working with pediatric clients in a research facility. The nurse recognizes that federal guidelines are in place to delineate which pediatrics clients must give assent for participation in research trials. Based upon the client’s age, the nurse would seek assent from which children? (Select all that apply.)

The precocious 4-year-old starting as a cystic fibrosis research study participant

2. The 7-year-old leukemia client electing to receive a newly developed medication being researched

3. The 10-year-old starting in an investigative study for clients with precocious puberty

4. The 13-year-old client beginning participation in a research program for ADHD treatments

Correct answer: 2, 3, 4

Rationale:

A 4-year-old is not old enough to understand any of the benefits and risks of the research trial, and is not required to assent.
Federal guidelines mandate that research participants 7 years old and older must receive developmentally appropriate information about health care procedures and treatments, and give assent.
Federal guidelines mandate that research participants 7 years old and older must receive developmentally appropriate information about healthcare procedures and treatments, and give assent.
Federal guidelines mandate that research participants 7 years old and older must receive developmentally appropriate information about healthcare procedures and treatments, and give assent.

Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Psychological Integrity

Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome 1-5: Identify unique pediatric legal and ethical issues in pediatric nursing practice.

A supervisor is reviewing the documentation of the nurses in the unit. The documentation that most accurately and correctly contains all the required parts for a narrative entry is the entry that reads:

1. “1630 Catheterized using an 8 French catheter, 45 ml clear yellow urine obtained, specimen sent to lab, squirmed and cried softly during insertion of catheter. Quiet in mother’s arms following catheter removal. M. May RN”

2. “1/9/05 2 P.M. g-tube accessed, positive air gurgle over stomach: 5 ml air injected, 10 ml residual stomach contents returned to stomach, Pediasure formula hung on Kangaroo pump infusing at 60 mL/hr for 1 hour. Child grunting intermittently throughout procedure. K. Earnst RN”

3. “4:00 Trach dressing removed with dime-size stain of dry serous exudate. Site cleansed with normal saline. Dried with sterile gauze. New sterile trach sponge and trach ties applied. F. Luck RN”

4. “Feb. ’05 Portacath assessed with Huber needle. Blood return present. Flushed with NaCl sol., IV gammaglobulins hung and infusing at 30mL/hr. Child smiling and playful throughout the procedure. P. Potter, RN”

While the description of the procedure is appropriate, this documentation does not include the date the note was written.
The client record should include the date and time of entry, nursing care provided, assessments, an objective report of the client’s physiologic response, exact quotes if applicable, and the nurse’s signature and title.
This option appropriately describes the procedure but neglects to include the date and how the client tolerated it.
This note does not specify the exact date and time at which the portacath was accessed. It also does not include the size of Huber needle was used.

Cognitive Level:

Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process:

Intervention

Learning Outcome 1-5: Identify unique pediatric legal and ethical issues in pediatric nursing practice.

The pediatric nurse’s best defense against an accusation of malpractice or negligence is that the nurse:

1. Followed the physician’s written orders.

2. Met the Society of Pediatric Nurses standards of practice.

3. Is a nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist.

4. Was acting on the advice of the nurse manager.

Correct answer:2

Rationale:

Following the physician’s written orders or acting on the advice of the nurse manager is not enough to defend the nurse from accusations, because the orders and/or advice could be wrong or unethical.
Meeting the Society of Pediatric Nurses standards of practice would cover the pediatric nurse against an accusation of malpractice or negligence because the standards are rigorous, and cover all bases of excellent nursing practice.
Being a clinical nurse specialist or nurse practitioner does not defend the nurse against these accusations if he does not follow the Society of Pediatric Nurses standards of practice.

Following the physician’s written orders or acting on the advice of the nurse manager is not enough to defend the nurse from accusations, because the orders and/or advice could be wrong or unethical.
Cognitive Level:

Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process:

Planning

Learning Outcome 1-5: Identify unique pediatric legal and ethical issues in pediatric nursing practice.

1. A breach of privacy.

2. Negligence.

3. Malpractice.

4. A breach of ethics.

Correct answer:1

Rationale:

A breach of privacy would have been committed in this situation, because it violates the right to privacy of this family. The right to privacy is the right of a person to keep his person and property free from public scrutiny (even other family members).
Negligence and malpractice are punishable legal offenses, and are more serious.
Negligence and malpractice are punishable legal offenses, and are more serious.
A breach of ethics would not apply to this situation.
Cognitive Level:

Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process:

Implementation

Learning Outcome 1-5: Identify unique pediatric legal and ethical issues in pediatric nursing practice.

Parents or guardians have authority to make choices about their child’s health care in almost all circumstances. In which situation would the parents or guardians not have such authority? When the child:
Begins to develop competence in health care decisions.
And parents do not agree on major treatment options.
Is able to understand concrete explanations.
Is considered to be a mature minor.
Correct answer: 2

Rationale:

The child would need to have more than just a beginning competence to nullify the parents’ authority.
Parents and guardians have absolute authority to make choices about their child’s health care except in these cases:
When the child and parents do not agree on major treatment options
When the parents’ choice of treatment does not permit life-saving treatment for the child
When there is a potential conflict of interest between the child and parents, such as with suspected child abuse or neglect
Understanding concrete operations is a start, but is not enough to nullify the parents’ authority.
Being a mature minor does not eliminate the need to obtain the parents’ informed consent, as they still maintain authority over their child.
Cognitive Level: Application

Client Need: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome 1-5: Identify unique pediatric legal and ethical issues in pediatric nursing practice.

child health nursing 2nd edition ball test bank