Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends & Management 5th edition Cherry, Jacob Test Bank

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  • Published: 2010
  • ISBN-13: 978-0323069533
  • ISBN-10: 0323069533

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contemporary nursing issues trends & management cherry 5th edition test bank

Cherry: Contemporary Nursing, 5th Edition

Chapter 01: The Evolution of Professional Nursing

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.Clara Barton is known for:

a. becoming the first African-American public health nurse.
b. establishing the Henry Street Settlement.
c. founding the American Red Cross.
d. publicizing the inadequacies of hospital-based nursing schools.

ANS: C

The American Red Cross, founded by Clara Barton in 1882, assisted in efforts to continue public health nursing.

Jessie Sleet Scales was the first African-American public health nurse.

Lillian Wald, a pioneer in public health nursing, is best known for the development and establishment of the Henry Street Settlement.

The Goldmark Report criticized the inadequacies of hospital-based nursing schools and recommended enhanced educational standards.

DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 13

2.Which bill provided for construction of hospitals?

a. Social Security Act
b. Hill-Burton Act
c. Sheppard-Towner Act
d. U.S. Civil Service Act

ANS: B

The purpose of the Hill-Burton Act was to provide funding to construct hospitals and to assist states in planning for other health care facilities in accordance with the needs of communities.

The main purposes of the 1935 Social Security Act were to provide (1) a national insurance system for older adults; (2) monies to states for maternal and child welfare services; (3) vocational rehabilitation services for the physically and mentally challenged; (4) medical care for crippled children and blind people; (5) a plan to boost public health services; and (6) a federal/state unemployment system.

The Sheppard-Towner Act provided federal aid for maternal and child health care.

The U.S. Civil Service Act is landmark U.S. legislation establishing the tradition and mechanism of permanent federal employment based on merit rather than on political party affiliation (the spoils system).

DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 14

3.The practice of public health nursing and the Henry Street Settlement are credited to:

a. Mary Breckenridge.
b. Mary Seacole.
c. Clara Barton.
d. Lillian Wald.

ANS: D

Lillian Wald, a pioneer in public health nursing, is best known for the development and establishment of the Henry Street Settlement.

Mary Breckenridge of Kentucky established the Frontier Nursing Service in 1925.

Mary Seacole was an African-American nurse who provided care during the Crimean War.

Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1882.

DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 13

4.Occupational health nursing features beliefs similar to those of which early nursing pioneer?

a. Lillian Wald
b. Florence Nightingale
c. Clara Barton
d. Mary Seacole

ANS: A

Lillian Wald developed the first nursing service for occupational health.

Florence Nightingale is best known for contributions made during the Crimean War, efforts to improve sanitation and public health, use of statistics to provide support for health outcomes, and organization of nurse training.

Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross.

Mary Seacole was an African-American nurse who served during the Crimean War.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 12

5.What historical event first led to the realization of the contribution of African-Americans to nursing?

a. Florence Nightingale’s acceptance of African-American nurses into the first nursing school
b. The contributions of African-American nurses at the Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in America
c. Mary Seacole’s efforts to care for soldiers during the Crimean War
d. The wives of wealthy African-American nobles who carried food and medicine from house to house during the Middle Ages

ANS: C

Although Nightingale’s school refused Seacole, she was able to make a difference in the Crimean War and later was recognized for her efforts.

Florence Nightingale’s efforts during the Crimean War were valuable and recognized, but she would not allow Seacole to join her in her efforts.

Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in America and was founded in 1751; Seacole’s efforts in the Crimean War did not occur until 100 years later.

The wives of noblemen who carried food and medicine were not uniquely African-Americans.

DIF: Application REF: Page 10

6.World War I contributed to the advancement of health care by:

a. increasing the number of private care hospitals and decreasing the role of public health services.
b. employing a large number of civilians to provide care to returning soldiers through the Red Cross.
c. introducing specialists in nursing such as nurse anesthetists.
d. increasing the number of community health nurses.

ANS: C

World War I offered nurses a chance to enter into new fields of specialization, as is seen in the example of nurse anesthetists who became part of surgical teams at the front lines.

Advancements in public health were being made and the primary site for medical care was moved from the home to the hospital.

The Red Cross provided care to communities in which access was limited and eventually moved to urban areas.

Many nurses were needed in the war effort, which caused the growth in community health nursing to halt.

DIF: Application REF: Page 13

7.The primary purpose of the Social Security Act of 1935 was to:

a. increase research that focused on minority groups.
b. provide medical care for chemically impaired persons.
c. ensure health care for older adults through a national insurance system.
d. decrease the public’s financial burden by limiting services offered by local health departments.

ANS: C

The Social Security Act of 1935 set the precedent for the passage of the Medicare and Medicaid acts that followed in 1965 to provide health insurance for older adults, but it also provided maternal and child welfare services, along with rehabilitation for the mentally and physically challenged, medical care for blind individuals and crippled children, and unemployment benefits.

Increasing research for minorities was not one of the purposes of the Social Security Act of 1935.

The care of persons with substance abuse problems was not one of the first purposes addressed by the Social Security Act.

The Social Security Act provided a means by which women and children could receive care, thus increasing the numbers of public health nurses and services offered.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 15

8.A client asks the nurse, “Can you explain Medicare, an amendment to the Social Security Act?” The nurse responds that Medicare:

a. led to many hospital closings, along with a decrease in acute care hospital–based nursing care.
b. provided medical insurance to those younger adults or children who were not eligible for private insurance because of catastrophic illnesses such as cancer.
c. provided preventive care for women, infants, and children.
d. ensured that individuals ages 65 and older and those with end-stage renal disease or permanent disabilities had health care insurance.

ANS: D

The Medicare program provides hospital insurance, Part A, and medical insurance, Part B, to all people ages 65 and older who are eligible to receive Social Security benefits; people with total, permanent disabilities; and people with end-stage renal disease.

Medicare provides insurance for many who previously have not sought health care, resulting in an increase, not a decrease, in hospital care.

Medical insurance for young adults and children who were not eligible for private insurance is part of Medicaid.

Medicaid was the medical insurance for those families, primarily women and children, with an income at or below the federal poverty level.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 18

9.A comparison of nursing in the 1980s versus nursing in the 1990s reveals that:

a. the 1990s influenced nursing in that a reduction occurred in preventable diseases caused by unsafe/unhealthy lifestyles.
b. tuberculosis was the primary concern for nursing in the 1980s, whereas the AIDS epidemic emerged and was its focus during the 1990s.
c. a decrease in ambulatory services in the 1980s prompted an increase in public health nurses in the 1990s.
d. the demand for advanced practice nurses increased in the 1980s and the 1990s as a result of the economy and concern about the health of the nation.

ANS: D

The numbers of advanced nurse practitioners increased as evidence of their cost-effectiveness as providers of primary and preventive health care became established.

In the 1990s, many diseases associated with preventable causes led to mortality in the United States.

The AIDS epidemic appeared in the 1980s and tuberculosis became more of a concern in the 1990s.

The 1980s saw an increase in technology that allowed more outpatient procedures, increased use of ambulatory services, and increased demand for community health nurses in the 1990s.

DIF: Application REF: Page 22

10.Which statement accurately describes the historical perspective of nursing practice?

a. Nursing has existed to meet the needs of populations, individuals, and aggregates by providing care that is influenced by the needs and beliefs of society in different historical contexts.
b. When men became interested in nursing, this provided the impetus to change nursing into a respected profession based on scientific fact rather than superstition.
c. Nursing has historically accepted individuals from all social and ethnic backgrounds.
d. The United States has led the way throughout history to advance nursing and health care by providing the first hospital and medical school.

ANS: A

Nursing has existed since biblical times to address needs ranging from contagious diseases in early times to health prevention in the present time, with care based on health beliefs of the time.

In the beginning, men were recognized as health healers, but women changed nursing from a mystical phenomenon to a respected profession.

Nursing has had periods when criminals and prostitutes practiced and discrimination was evidenced by Nightingale’s refusal of Seacole.

The first hospital and the first medical school in North America were founded in Mexico—the Hospital of the Immaculate Conception in Mexico City and the University of Mexico Medical School.

DIF: Application REF: Pages 3-24

11.Although the use of herbs has become a popular alternative to prescription drugs in today’s health care milieu, during which other historical periods did health practices focus on the use of herbs?

a. Prehistoric times and the Middle Ages
b. Civil War period and World War I
c. Renaissance and Reformation periods and the Colonial American period
d. Crimean War and Civil War periods

ANS: A

During prehistoric times, tribes used herbs to rid themselves of the curse of disease, and in the Middle Ages, women used herbs.

During the Civil War, health care was similar to that provided in Colonial times, when epidemics were rampant, and World War I saw an increase in the advancement of nursing specialties and public health nursing.

During the Renaissance and Reformation periods, major advancements were made in pharmacology, chemistry, and medical knowledge, including anatomy, physiology, and surgery, and the Colonial American period focused on transmissible diseases.

The Crimean War era found nursing care that was focused on sanitation and environmental improvements, and with the Civil War, the nursing focus reverted to communicable diseases.

DIF: Application REF: Page 3

12.A care provider sacrifices an animal and waves an herb-filled sack over a client who is complaining of painful joints and chest pain with exertion. This ritual represents health care during:

a. the prehistoric period.
b. early civilization in Egypt.
c. the Renaissance.
d. the Middle Ages.

ANS: A

During prehistoric times, illness was thought to be caused by evil spirits that providers attempted to scare away through rituals and dances.

The Egyptians were very advanced at an early time in the use of suturing and preventive measures such as public health.

Although major advancements were made during the Renaissance in pharmacology, chemistry, and medical knowledge, this was the dark period for nursing because those who entered the profession were most often unsavory.

During the Middle Ages, health care providers who were women used herbs; however, men used purging and surgeries that were performed by unskilled individuals.

DIF: Application REF: Page 3

13.A prospective nursing student who researches universities that offer a baccalaureate degree in nursing would want to ensure that the program is accredited by the:

a. American Nurses Association.
b. Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education.
c. National Institutes of Health.
d. National Nursing Council.

ANS: B

The Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) is the agency that exclusively accredits baccalaureate and graduate-degree nursing programs.

The American Nurses Association focuses on professional issues but not accreditation.

The National Institutes of Health support medical research.

The National Nursing Council was a committee of six national nursing organizations whose purpose was to expand nursing education.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 5

14.Nursing in the 1990s was characterized by:

a. men leaving nursing to enter the armed services.
b. traditional 8-hour shifts to reduce fragmentation of care.
c. a focus on preventable diseases.
d. a decrease in nursing research.

ANS: B

Nurses wanted creative shifts with shift differential and the ability to work a second job.

Although men remained a minority in nursing, the reason was not due to war.

Health promotion and disease prevention were recognized as the means to reduce disparity and the high number of mortalities associated with diseases that were preventable.

Nursing research moved into the National Institutes of Health, leading to interprofessional collaboration and growth in nursing research.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 22

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1.The clinical nurse leader (CNL): (Select all that apply.)

a. requires certification as an advanced practice nurse.
b. provides care at the bedside while collaborating with other members of the health care team.
c. focuses on clinical practice rather than fulfilling the role of administrator or educator.
d. is an advanced practice nurse whose practice is limited to the acute care setting.
e. has a clinically focused doctoral degree in nursing, which provides prescriptive authority.

ANS: B, C

The CNL manages care at the bedside or point of care through an interdisciplinary approach.

The CNL is a provider of care and does not assume the role of manager.

The CNL is not an advanced practice nurse but rather a generalist.

The CNL is a generalist and is not an advanced practice nurse.

The CNL is educated at the master’s level and does not have prescriptive authority.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 2

COMPLETION

1.Which group in early civilization is credited with developing a pharmacopoeia to classify more than 700 drugs used in caring for the sick? ____________________

ANS:

Egyptians

A pharmacopoeia that classified more than 700 drugs was written by the Egyptians to assist in the care and management of disease.

DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 6

OTHER

1.Place the role of nurses in chronological order occurring from the Civil War to World War II.

A. Nurses who served during war were given rank as officers.

B. No nurses were formally trained.

C. Public health nursing and occupational nursing were begun.

D. The nurse anesthetist was introduced.

ANS:

B, C, D, A

It was not until 1860 that Nightingale established the first nursing school in England. Nurses were not formally trained until Nightingale’s time.

During the 1900s, prior to World War I, Lillian Wald instituted public health nursing and occupational nursing.

In 1914, with the beginning of World War I, the nurse anesthetist joined the surgical team.

Nurses were seen as a valuable part of the military and attained the ranks of officers in the Army and the Navy for their participation in World War II.

DIF: Application REF: Pages 9-13

contemporary nursing issues trends & management cherry 5th edition test bank