Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th edition Marieb Test Bank

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  • Published: 2011
  • ISBN-10: 0321695984
  • ISBN-13: 978-0321695987

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essentials of human anatomy and physiology 10th edition test bank marieb

Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

Exam

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) A section that divides the body on the longitudinal plane into equal right and left parts is called: 1) _______

A) median (midsagittal)

B) oblique

C) transverse

D) frontal

E) coronal

2) Which of the following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex, in the

levels of structural organization of the human body:

2) _______

A) chemical level, tissue level, cellular level, organ system level, organ level, organismal level

B) cellular level, chemical level, tissue level, organ system level, organismal level, organ level

C) chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level

D) cellular level, chemical level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level

E) cellular level, tissue level, chemical level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level

3) Which of these regions are associated with the parts of the arm: 3) _______

A) femoral, popliteal, patellar

B) brachial, antecubital, carpal

C) nasal, oral, occipital

D) pelvic, pubic, inguinal

E) acromial, sacral, gluteal

4) The muscular system consists of the: 4) _______

A) muscles in the walls of hollow organs

B) muscles of the heart and those in the walls of the hollow organs

C) skeletal muscles

D) skeletal muscles and the muscles of the heart

E) muscles of the heart

5) The lymphatic system: 5) _______

A) synthesizes vitamin D

B) responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands

C) secretes hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use

(metabolism) by body cells

D) picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood

E) produces heat

6) Which system covers the external surface of the body and manufactures vitamin D: 6) _______

A) endocrine system

B) skeletal system

C) nervous system

D) integumentary system

E) lymphatic system

7) Which of these regions are NOT associated with the ventral (anterior) portion of the head: 7) _______

A) oral B) orbital C) buccal D) nasal E) occiptal

8) Which of the following systems is matched most accurately to the life function it provides: 8) _______

A) respiratory system –  digestion

B) nervous system –  excretion

C) muscular system –  maintaining boundaries

D) integumentary system –  movement

E) nervous system –  responsiveness

9) Which of the following elements of a control system detects a change: 9) _______

A) receptor

B) control center

C) effector

D) stimulus

E) efferent pathway

10) Which of the following statements is correct regarding the location of the spleen and stomach: 10) ______

A) both of these organs are located medially

B) both of these organs are located in the left upper quadrant

C) the spleen is located in the left upper quadrant and the stomach is located in the right

upper quadrant

D) both of these organs are located in the right upper quadrant

E) the spleen is located in the right upper quadrant and the stomach is located in the left

upper quadrant

11) Which of these is NOT a survival need: 11) ______

A) oxygen

B) water

C) reproduction

D) body temperature

E) nutrients

12) Which of the following is the correct order of elements in a control system: 12) ______

A) receptor, stimulus, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response

B) stimulus, receptor, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, effector, response

C) receptor, stimulus, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, effector, response

D) stimulus, receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response

E) effector, stimulus, efferent pathway, control center, afferent pathway, receptor, response

13) Which of the following activities does not represent an anatomical study: 13) ______

A) viewing muscle tissue through a microscope

B) studying how the nerves conduct electrical impulses

C) observing the parts of a reproducing cell

D) examining the surface of a bone

E) making a section through the heart to observe its interior

14) The dorsal body cavity houses the: 14) ______

A) heart and lungs

B) spinal cord and brain

C) tongue

D) urinary and reproductive organs

E) digestive and reproductive organs

15) The stomach, liver, intestines, bladder, rectum, and reproductive organs are housed in the: 15) ______

A) abdominopelvic cavity

B) dorsal cavity

C) spinal cavity

D) cranial cavity

E) thoracic cavity

16) Which of the following is NOT a necessary life function : 16) ______

A) nutrients

B) maintaining boundaries

C) movement

D) responsiveness

E) metabolism

17) The study of the function of the body and body parts is called: 17) ______

A) homeostasis

B) anatomy

C) physiology

D) irritability

E) negative feedback

18) Which of these regions in the abdominopelvic cavity are medial: 18) ______

A) epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric regions

B) umbilical, right lumbar, and left lumbar regions

C) epigastric, right, and left hypochondriac regions

D) iliac (inguinal), lumbar, and hypogastric regions

E) right and left iliac (inguinal), and hypogastric regions

19) The region that contains the navel is the: 19) ______

A) umbilical region

B) orbital region

C) carpal region

D) anterior knee

E) inguinal region

20) The gluteal region is the: 20) ______

A) posterior knee area

B) posterior surface of the head

C) shoulder blade region

D) buttock

E) curve of the shoulder

21) Which of the following orientation terms have opposite meanings (in humans): 21) ______

A) medial and anterior

B) superficial and proximal

C) posterior and intermediate

D) distal and proximal

E) medial and distal

22) Your body thermostat is located in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Which of the

following elements of a control system does this area in the brain represent:

22) ______

A) stimulus

B) afferent pathway

C) efferent pathway

D) effector

E) control center

23) The ovary is part of which of the following two systems: 23) ______

A) digestive and respiratory systems

B) reproductive and endocrine systems

C) digestive and endocrine systems

D) reproductive and respiratory systems

E) endocrine and respiratory systems

24) Elimination of metabolic wastes from the body is the function of the: 24) ______

A) digestive and urinary systems

B) digestive system

C) urinary system

D) respiratory system

E) digestive and respiratory systems

25) Which ventral cavity subdivision has no bony protection: 25) ______

A) spinal

B) pelvic

C) abdominal

D) cranial

E) thoracic

26) The system that controls and coordinates the body through hormones is the: 26) ______

A) digestive system

B) nervous system

C) endocrine system

D) skeletal system

E) integumentary system

27) Which type of section could be used to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic

cavity:

27) ______

A) dorsal B) transverse C) sagittal D) coronal E) ventral

28) Which of the following regional terms means the anterior surface of the elbow: 28) ______

A) vertebral region

B) antecubital region

C) calcaneal region

D) scapular region

E) gluteal region

29) In describing the relationship of the thoracic and spinal cavities: 29) ______

A) the thoracic cavity is superior to the spinal cavity

B) the thoracic cavity is medial to the spinal cavity

C) the thoracic cavity is proximal to the spinal cavity

D) the thoracic cavity is ventral to the spinal cavity

E) the thoracic cavity is inferior to the spinal cavity

30) Which of these structures is the most complex: 30) ______

A) a tissue

B) a molecule

C) a cell

D) organ system

E) an organ

31) Sarah fell while ice skating and broke a bone in her carpal region. Where is this region? 31) ______

A) wrist B) shoulder C) lower leg D) hip E) knee

32) In anatomical position: 32) ______

A) the body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms

facing forward

B) the body is lying face up with the feet parallel and the arms at the sides with the palms

facing forward

C) the body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms

facing backward

D) the body is lying face up with the feet parallel and the arms at the sides with the palms

facing backward

E) the body is lying face down with the feet parallel and the arms at the sides with the palms

facing backward

33) The lungs and heart are in the __________ body cavity. 33) ______

A) spinal

B) thoracic

C) abdominopelvic

D) cranial

E) dorsal

34) The ribs are located in the: 34) ______

A) right and left iliac regions

B) right and left hypochondriac regions

C) right and left pubic regions

D) right and left lumbar regions

E) right and left inguinal regions

35) Positive feedback systems: 35) ______

A) operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases

B) regulate heart and breathing rates, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is

shut off or reduced

C) regulate heart and breathing rates, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is

enhanced and increases

D) operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reduced

E) regulate heart and breathing rates

36) Which of the following orientation and directional terms have the same meaning (in humans): 36) ______

A) superior and caudal

B) inferior and cephalad

C) anterior and dorsal

D) inferior and cranial

E) anterior and ventral

37) The system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide to the exterior is the: 37) ______

A) muscular system

B) respiratory system

C) urinary system

D) cardiovascular system

E) reproductive system

38) In describing the relationship between the patellar and popliteal regions: 38) ______

A) the patellar region is lateral to the popliteal region

B) the patellar region is anterior to the popliteal region

C) the patellar region is proximal to the popliteal region

D) the patellar region is superior to the popliteal region

E) the patellar region is distal to the popliteal region

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

39) A cut that is made along the midline is called a __________ section. 39) _ ____________

Figure 1.1

Using Figure 1.1, identify the following:

40) Label E points to the __________ cavity. 40) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

41) A control mechanism that responds to a stimulus by decreasing its intensity is called a

__________ mechanism.

41) _ ____________

42) The larynx is an organ of the __________ system. 42) _ ____________

Figure 1.2

Using Figure 1.2, identify the following:

43) Label A points to the __________ region. 43) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

44) The bodyʹ s ability to maintain stable internal conditions is referred to as __________. 44) _ ____________

45) The abdominal cavity has __________ quadrants and __________ regions. 45) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

46) The navel is __________ to the spine. 46) _ ____________

47) _________ is the process of breaking down ingested food in preparation for absorption. 47) _ ____________

Figure 1.2

Using Figure 1.2, identify the following:

48) Label E points to the __________ region. 48) _ ____________

Figure 1.1

Using Figure 1.1, identify the following:

49) Label B points to the __________ cavity. 49) _ ____________

50) Label F points to the __________ cavity. 50) _ ____________

51) Ventral is a directional term synonymous with __________ in humans. 51) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

52) Groups of cells that have a common function are termed __________. 52) _ ____________

Figure 1.1

Using Figure 1.1, identify the following:

53) Label A points to the __________ cavity. 53) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

54) The central region of the thoracic cavity containing the heart is called the __________. 54) _ ____________

55) The system that functions in the storage of minerals, such as calcium, is called the

__________ system.

55) _ ____________

56) The component of a control system that provides the means for the control centerʹ s

response (output) is called the __________.

56) _ ____________

57) The thoracic cavity is __________ to the abdominopelvic cavity. 57) _ ____________

58) The __________ system is composed of kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. 58) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

59) The ability to sense changes and react to them is termed __________ or __________. 59) _ ____________

60) The armpit area is called the __________ region. 60) _ ____________

61) The epigastric region is __________ to the right hypochondriac region of the

abdominopelvic cavity.

61) _ ____________

Figure 1.2

Using Figure 1.2, identify the following:

62) Label B points to the __________ region. 62) _ ____________

63) Label C points to the __________ region. 63) _ ____________

64) Blood is categorized as a __________ because it is compared of similar cells with a

common function.

64) _ ____________

65) The patellar region is __________ to the popliteal region. 65) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

66) The cranial and spinal cavities are subdivisions of the __________ cavity. 66) _ ____________

67) The function of the __________ system is to control body activities via hormones. 67) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

68) _________ refers to all of the chemical reactions in the body. 68) _ ____________

Figure 1.1

Using Figure 1.1, identify the following:

69) Label D points to the __________. 69) _ ____________

Figure 1.2

Using Figure 1.2, identify the following:

70) Label F points to the __________ region. 70) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

71) The study of the bodyʹ s small structures using a microscope is called __________. 71) _ ____________

Figure 1.2

Using Figure 1.2, identify the following:

72) Label D points to the __________ region. 72) _ ____________

Figure 1.1

Using Figure 1.1, identify the following:

73) Label C points to the __________ cavity. 73) _ ____________

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

74) The right and left iliac (inguinal) regions are lateral to the __________ region. 74) _ ____________

75) The breakdown of ingested foods into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into

the bloodstream is termed __________.

75) _ ____________

76) The three medial regions of the abdominopelvic cavity are __________, __________, and

__________.

76) _ ____________

77) Blood clotting and the birth of a baby are examples of the __________ feedback

mechanism.

77) _ ____________

TRUE/FALSE. Write ʹTʹ if the statement is true and ʹFʹ if the statement is false.

78) The heel of the foot constitutes the plantar region. 78) ______

79) The lymphatic system collects fluids leaked by the cardiovascular system and returns them to

the bloodstream.

79) ______

80) The spleen and the tonsils are part of the digestive system. 80) ______

81) The endocrine system is the fast- acting body control system. 81) ______

82) The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm. 82) ______

83) The dorsal body cavity is subdivided into four quadrants and nine regions. 83) ______

84) As body temperature drops below normal, chemical reactions proceed too rapidly and body

proteins begin to break down.

84) ______

85) The spinal cavity is part of the ventral body cavity. 85) ______

86) The hypogastric region is directly superior to the umbilical region. 86) ______

87) There is no physical structure that separates the abdominal cavity from the pelvic cavity. 87) ______

88) The highest level of structural organization in humans is the organ level. 88) ______

89) Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback reactions. 89) ______

90) Proximal  means farther from the origin of a body part. 90) ______

91) The sacral region is on the ventral (anterior) body surface. 91) ______

92) Excretion is the process of removing wastes from the body. 92) ______

MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

Match the following:

93) Tarsal A) ankle 93) ______

94) Inguinal B) area where thigh meets body trunk 94) ______

95) Umbilical C) navel 95) ______

Match the following:

96) Dorsal A) behind 96) ______

97) Ventral B) toward the side 97) ______

98) Lateral C) in front of 98) ______

99) Superior D) above 99) ______

Match the following.

100) Regulation of water and electrolytes A) urinary system 100) _____

Match the following:

101) Popliteal A) posterior knee area 101) _____

102) Oral B) mouth 102) _____

Match the following.

103) Heat production A) nervous system 103) _____

104) Responds to stimuli (internal and

external)

B) muscular system 104) _____

Match the following:

105) Proximal A) close to the origin of the body part or the

point of attachment of a limb to the body

trunk

105) _____

Match the following.

106) Site of hematopoiesis A) skeletal system 106) _____

Match the following:

107) Patellar A) armpit 107) _____

108) Axillary B) anterior knee 108) _____

Match the following:

109) Deep A) toward the body surface 109) _____

B)

away from the body surface

Match the following:

110) Femoral A) thigh 110) _____

Match the following:

111) Distal A) farther from the origin of a body part or

the point of attachment of a limb to the

body trunk

111) _____

Match the following:

112) Coxal A) hip 112) _____

Match the following.

113) Houses blood cells involved in

immunity

A) lymphatic system 113) _____

B) respiratory system

Match the following:

114) Orbital A) eye area 114) _____

Match the following:

115) Inferior A) below 115) _____

Match the following.

116) Slow- acting body control system A) digestive system 116) _____

B)

endocrine system

Match the following:

117) Medial A) toward the midline 117) _____

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

118) Describe anatomical position. Explain why anatomical position is used.

119) Explain the difference between homeostatis and metabolism.

120) List and explain the eight necessary human life functions.

121) Explain how scratching an itch is an example of the negative feedback mechanism.

122) Describe the role of the effector in the negative feedback system.

123) List, and briefly define, the human bodyʹ s organization levels from smallest to largest.

124) List and explain the three major body planes and sections.

125) Distinguish between anatomy  and physiology .

126) Identify the two dorsal body cavities, and state their locations and the organs contained therein.

127) List the four quadrants and nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity. Explain why this cavity has these

subdivisions.

128) List and explain the five survival needs of humans.

1) A

2) C

3) B

4) C

5) D

6) D

7) E

8) E

9) A

10) B

11) C

12) D

13) B

14) B

15) A

16) A

17) C

18) A

19) A

20) D

21) D

22) E

23) B

24) C

25) C

26) C

27) B

28) B

29) D

30) D

31) A

32) A

33) B

34) B

35) A

36) E

37) B

38) B

39) midsagittal or median

40) abdominal

41) negative feedback

42) respiratory

43) epigastric

44) homeostasis

45) 4; 9

46) ventral or anterior

47) Digestion

48) hypogastric

49) spinal

50) pelvic

51) anterior

52) tissues

53) cranial

54) mediastinum

55) skeletal

56) effector

57) superior

58) urinary or excretory

59) irritability; responsiveness

60) axillary

61) medial

62) right hypochondriac

63) umbilical

64) tissue

65) ventral or anterior

66) dorsal

67) endocrine

68) Metabolism

69) diaphragm

70) right iliac (inguinal)

71) microscopic anatomy

72) right lumbar

73) thoracic

74) hypogastric

75) digestion

76) epigastric region, umbilical region, hypogastric region

77) positive

78) FALSE

79) TRUE

80) FALSE

81) FALSE

82) TRUE

83) FALSE

84) FALSE

85) FALSE

86) FALSE

87) TRUE

88) FALSE

89) TRUE

90) FALSE

91) FALSE

92) TRUE

93) A

94) B

95) C

96) A

97) C

98) B

99) D

100) A

101) A

102) B

103) B

104) A

105) A

106) A

107) B

108) A

109) B

110) A

111) A

112) A

113) A

114) A

115) A

116) B

117) A

118) Anatomical position is defined as standing erect, feet parallel to the arms, palms facing forward. Anatomical

position is used because it is a standard position; it also helps us to avoid confusion. Additionally, anatomical

position is a reference point that helps us accurately describe body parts and position.

119) Homeostasis is the bodyʹ s attempt to maintain balance during which time internal conditions may vary.

Metabolism is all chemical reactions that occur in the body.

120) 1. Maintenance of boundaries keeps the internal environment distinct from the external environment; membranes

perform this function at the cellular level and skin performs this function for the organism.

2. Movement includes a change in the position of the body or the propelling of a substance (such as blood, urine,

or food) through the body organs; constitutes a major role of the muscular system.

3. Responsiveness (irritability) the ability to react to stimuli; constitutes a major role of the nervous system.

4. Metabolism includes all the chemical reactions that occur within the bodyʹ s cells.

5. Excretion elimination of carbon dioxide by the lungs and nitrogenous wastes by the kidneys.

6. Digestion the process of breaking down ingested foodstuffs into simpler molecules that can then be absorbed

into the blood for delivery to the bodyʹ s cells.

7. Growth an increase in size, which is usually accompanied by an increase in the number of cells.

8. Reproduction the production of new cells for growth and repair, and also the production of offspring.

121) 1. Stimulus or input is the itch.

2. A receptor carries the information about the stimulus (itch) to the brain via an afferent pathway.

3. Control center (brain) analyzes this information an turns on an effector which will cancel the stimulus.

4. Information reaches the effector via the efferent pathway from the brain. Muscles move the hand to scratch the

itch.

5. Scratching continues until the itch goes away. The brain shuts off the effector once homeostatis is restored.

122) The effector is the control centerʹ s output and response to the stimulus. The effectorʹ s job is to cancel or shut off the

control mechanism.

123) 1. chemical level:

a. atoms are the basic building blocks of matter

b. molecules are units formed by atoms combining

2. cellular level: cells are the smallest living unit in living organisms

3. tissue level: tissues are groupings of cells performing a common function

4. organ level: an organ is a structure consisting of two or more tissue types

5. organ system level: an organ system describes a group of organs functioning

cooperatively for a common purpose

6. organism level: a human organism consists of all of the organ systems of the

b

ody working together to promote healthy functioning

(homeostasis)

124) 1. Sagittal cut is made along the longitudinal (lengthwise) plane of the body (or an organ), dividing it into right

and left parts.

2. Frontal (coronal) cut is made along the longitudinal (lengthwise) plane of the body (or an organ), dividing it

into anterior and posterior parts.

3. Transverse (cross- section) cut is made along the transverse (horizontal) plane, dividing the body into superior

and inferior parts.

125) Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts, and their relationships to one another.

Physiology is the study of how the body and its parts work or function.

126) 1. Cranial cavity the superior posterior space inside the bony skull that houses the brain.

2. Spinal cavity the inferior posterior space inside the bony vertebral column that houses the spinal cord.

127) 1. The four quadrants are:

a. right upper quadrant

b. right lower quadrant

c. left upper quadrant

d. right lower quadrant

2. The nine regions are:

a. epigastric region

b. umbilical region

c. hypogastric region

d. right hypochondriac region

e. left hypochondriac region

f. right lumbar region

g. left lumbar region

h. right iliac region

i. left iliac region

This cavity has been subdivided into these quadrants and regions because it is large and has many organs.

128) 1. Nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, which are taken in via the diet for energy and cell building.

2. Oxygen required to release energy from food.

3. Water accounts for over 60% of the body weight, and provides the basis for various body fluids.

4. Appropriate body temperature when too high or too low, physiological activities cease, primarily because

molecules are destroyed or become nonfunctional.

5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure the force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air; is essential

for normal operation of the respiratory system and breathing.

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