Essentials of Lifespan Development 2nd edition Santrock Test Bank

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  • Published: 2011
  • ISBN-10: 007353207X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0073532073

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essentials of lifespan development 2nd edition test bank santrock

Chapter 1

  1. Development is best defined as a pattern of movement or change that:
    A. begins at birth and continues throughout childhood.
    B. begins at conception and continues until the person is fully grown.
    C. begins at birth and ends when the person begins to decline due to age. D. begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span.
  2. Two developmental psychologists are having a conversation. One believes in the traditional view of developmental change; the other believes in the life-span view. Most likely, they would DISAGREE about:
    A. the scientific methods used to study development.B. whether the tabula rasa or innate goodness positions were correct.
    C. whether most developmental change occurs in infancy and early childhood or in later phases ofdevelopment.
    D whether the earlier theorists, such as Freud and Jung, were correct or whether the later theorists, such as

. Piaget and Skinner, were correct.

  1. The traditional and life-span perspectives are contrasting views of developmental change. According to the life-span perspective, when do developmental changes occur?
    A. during infancy and early childhood
    B. during adolescence and early adulthoodC. during middle and late adulthood D. during childhood and adulthood
  2. A life-span theorist believes that:
    A. developmental changes occur in the child and adolescent years of life.
    B. the most important developmental changes occur during the first 10 years of life. C. developmental changes occur throughout childhood and adulthood.
    D. the most important developmental changes occur in the middle of life.
  3. What does the traditional view of human development state about developmental change in adulthood?A. There are few or no changes that occur during adulthood.
    B. There are extreme changes that occur during adulthood.
    C. There are constant changes that occur during adulthood.
    D. There are more changes in earlier adulthood than in later adulthood.
  4. On your first day of class, Professor Red-Elk claims that for too long we have focused on the development of only young children. She argues that the development of adults and elderly people is just as important. This professor is articulating a __________ view.
    A. contemporary
    B. tabula rasa
    C. traditional
    D. life-span
  5. The upper limit of the human life span is approximately _____ years of age. A. 78B. 83
    C. 122
    D. an unlimited number of
  1. Life expectancy increased during the 20th century because of improvements in: A. sanitation.B. nutrition.
    C. medicine.
    D. all of the above.
  2. Life expectancy refers to:
    A. the average number of years a person can expect to live. B. the maximum number of years a species can live.
    C. the number of years lived by most people.
    D. the oldest age of any person in recorded history.
  3. The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:
    1. plastic.
    2. contextual.
    3. multidimensional.
    4. lifelong.
  4. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:
    A. lifelong.
    B. multidirectional.C. multidimensional. D. plastic.
  5. Many older adults become wiser by being able to call on experience, yet their performance on tests of cognitive speed declines. This can be explained by which of the following life-span characteristics? A. plasticity
    B. contextualismC. multidimensionality D. multidirectionality
  6. Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old, is currently going back to college, and is enrolled in a college algebra course. Tzu-Chiang is surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not having a formal math class for over 30 years. Researchers would not be surprised by his performance because it has been shown that development is:A. plastic.
    B. multidimensional. C. lifelong.
    D. contextual.
  7. By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a:
    A. nonnormative life event.
    B. multidirectional influence on development.C. normative age-graded influence on development.
    D. nonnormative age-graded influence on development.
  8. Tyler is 5 years old and has just entered kindergarten. This is an example of: A. a nonnormative influence on development.
    B. a normative history-graded influence on development.
    C. a normative age-graded influence on development.D. a nonnormative age-graded influence on development.
  1. People today are waiting longer to marry and raise children. In the 1950s, it was more common for people to marry and start a family before they were 20 years old. This difference is an example of a:
    A. normative age-graded influence on development.
    B. normative history-graded influence on development.C. multidimensional change in the context of development.
    D. nonnormative life event that has changed across development.
  2. Levi was in New York on the day that the World Trade Center was destroyed by terrorists. He is now afraid to fly. This is an example of how a __________ event can influence a person’s development. A. normative history-graded
    B. normative age-gradedC. normative life
    D. nonnormative stressful
  3. When she was a teenager, two members of Anna’s family were killed by a tornado. More than 30 years later, she is still terrified by storms. This is an example of how a(n) __________ event can influence a person’s development.
    A. age-gradedB. normative-graded
    C. nonnormative life
    D. normative history-graded
  4. Paul Baltes claimed that nonnormative life events could provide an important context for life-span development. With this concept, the term “nonnormative” refers to an event that:
    A. is not likely to happen to very many people.
    B. happens to younger children but not to older adults.C. used to happen to everyone but no longer occurs very much today. D. happens to almost everyone regardless of when or where they live.
  5. Aimee is now 83 years old. Much of her future development will focus on __________ and _________.A. growth; maintenance.
    B. maintenance; regulation of loss. C. regulation of loss; change.
    D. growth; regulation.
  6. Constance is 75 years old and still very active. She gardens, hikes, plays chess, and is learning to play the piano. She exercises daily to stay fit. She loves reading, listening to music, and playing with her grandchildren. Her hearing and eyesight are not what they used to be, and she is not as steady on her feet as when she was younger. She wears a hearing aid, eyeglasses, and sensible shoes to minimize these losses. Researchers would say that Constance is a good example of how development includes:A. varying contexts.
    B. growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss. C. plasticity.
    D. multidisciplinary influences.
  7. Researchers from many different fields of study examine human development in an effort to better understand how humans develop. This makes human development a __________ field of study. A. multidirectional
    B. culturalC. multidisciplinary D. multidimensional
  8. Culture is based on the:
    A. nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language of a people.
    B. practices of a large number of people living in the same geographic area. C. exchange of ideas between groups of people who live in the same location. D. behaviors, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people.
  1. Dr. Widaman is researching the cultural differences in school performance between Japanese and American children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth graders. One of his groups is from Japan and the other group is from the United States. Dr. Widaman is conducting a __________ study.
    A. longitudinal
    B. correlational
    C. cross-cultural
    D. sequential
  2. European Americans:
    A. are not an ethnic group in the United States; they are the majority culture.
    B. form an ethnic group in the world, but not within the United States alone.
    C. do not form an ethnic group, because there is a lack of diversity within this group. D. are an ethnic group like any other ethnic group in the United States or the world.
  3. Hannah and George disagree. Hannah argues that people within an ethnic group all share the same culture. George, by contrast, argues that people of the same ethnic group may or may not share the same culture. Who is right?
    A. Hannah, because sharing the same culture defines an ethnic group.B. George, because diversity exists among people within an ethnic group.
    C Hannah is correct when referring to ethnic groups within the United States; George is right when
    . referringtoethnicgroupsintheentireworld.
    DHannah is correct when the persons in the ethnic group all share the same socioeconomic status; George . is correct when the persons in the ethnic group do not share the same socioeconomic status.
  4. Ethnicity refers to:
    A the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on

. from generation to generation.
B. a person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics. C.a controversial classification of people according to real or imagined biological characteristics such as

skin color and blood group.
D. a range of characteristics based on heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.

  1. People with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics are said to share the same:A. ethnic group.
    B. poverty rate.
    C. socioeconomic status. D. subculture group.
  2. The psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male refer to an individual’s: A. gender.B. sex.
    C. sex role.
    D. sexual stereotype.
  3. Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of uneducated women? A. CanadaB. Cameroon
    C. the United States D. Russia
  4. Which of the following is an example of social policy? A. a volunteer coordinating an after-school program B. a mother disciplining her son
    C. a government lowering federal taxesD. a college student protesting a tuition increase
  1. Kyesha is 80 years old and is typical of a growing number of older adults. Kyesha MOST LIKELY lives:A. with a spouse.
    B. with children.
    C. alone.
    D. in a nursing home.
  2. All of the following trends in older adulthood can be seen in recent decades, except: A. older adults are more likely to be without children.
    B. older adults are more likely to be childless.
    C. older adults are less likely to live alone.D. older adults are more likely to be married.
  3. The key developmental processes in life-span development include all of the following EXCEPT: A. cognitive processes.
    B. biological processes.
    C. socioemotional processes.D. physical/sensory processes.
  4. Dante is 2 years old. His mother took him to the doctor and discovered that he had gained 5 pounds and had grown 2 inches since his last physical exam. This is an example of the role of __________ processes in development.
    A. cognitiveB. biological
    C. socioemotional D. physical
  5. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship among biological development, cognitive development, and social development?
    A. The three are processes which are independent of one another.
    B. The three are intertwined processes throughout the life span.C. The three are less important than culture when studying development. D. The three differ in their importance at different points in the life cycle.
  6. Our relationships with others, changes in emotions, and changes in personality are all examples of __________ processes.
    A. cognitive
    B. biologicalC. socioemotional D. physical
  7. Johnathan is almost completely dependent on his parents. He is just learning to langue and recognize his own symbolic thoughts. Johnathan is in the period of development called:
    A. late childhood.
    B. middle childhood.C. early childhood. D. infancy.
  8. Joshua spends all of his free time doing homework and studying so that he will get good grades and his parents will be proud of his achievements. Joshua is most likely in the period of development called: A. early childhood.
    B. middle childhood.C. adolescence.
    D. early adulthood.
  1. Travis spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He also has been thinking about how his personal relationship is going and considering whether it could be long-term and lead to establishing a family. Travis is most likely in:
    A. late adolescence.B. early adulthood. C. middle adulthood. D. late adulthood.
  2. The developmental period that runs from approximately 40 years of age to about 60 years of age is: A. early adulthood.
    B. the nesting years.
    C. middle adulthood.D. the crooning years.
  3. Jessica spends a lot of time thinking about the choices she has made in her life and the events she has witnessed. She is adjusting to decreasing strength and health, and she has made several lifestyle changes as a result. Jessica is most likely in:
    A. adolescence.
    B. early adulthood.
    C. middle adulthood.
    D. late adulthood.
  4. Which of the following life-span phases lasts the longest? A. middle and late childhood
    B. adolescence
    C. middle adulthoodD. late adulthood
  5. Development in the young-old is characterized by considerable _________, but development in the oldest-old is characterized by __________
    A. cognitive gains; cognitive losses.
    B. functional gains; functional losses.C. adaptability; inflexibility. D. adaptability; frailty.
  6. The onset of puberty and the onset of menopause are examples of __________ age. A. socialB. chronological C. biological
    D. psychological
  7. Biology is to __________ as environment is to _________. A. nature; nurture.
    B. nurture; nature.
    C. maturation; nature.D. nature; maturation.
  8. Dr. Borthwick-Duffy believes people are primarily influenced by the environment and learned experiences, so she believes __________ plays a more powerful role in human development. A. nurture
    B. maturationC. change D. nature
  1. Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development? A. change
    B. stabilityC. maturation D. continuity
  2. Winona was found to have childhood depression; she goes on to have depression for the rest of her adult life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
    A. change
    B. stabilityC. maturation D. discontinuity
  3. Continuity is to __________ as discontinuity is to _________. A. fluid; rigid.B. gradual; abrupt.
    C. maturation; nurture. D. adulthood; childhood.
  4. The concept of discontinuity is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT: A. qualitative change.
    B. quantitative change.
    C. sequence of stages.D. distinct change.
  5. Life-span psychologists generally agree that:
    A. continuity correctly characterizes development; discontinuity does not.
    B. discontinuity correctly characterizes development; continuity does not.
    C. development cannot be characterized as either continuous or discontinuous. D. developmental change can be both continuous and discontinuous.
  6. Life-span psychologists generally agree that:
    A. stability correctly characterizes development; change does not. B. change correctly characterizes development; stability does not. C. neither stability nor change correctly characterizes development. D. developmental includes both stability and change.
  7. An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps us to explain phenomena and make predictions is known as a(n):A. idea.
    B. scientific method. C. theory.
    D. hypothesis.
  8. Martin believes that the length of a person’s foot is directly correlated with his or her intelligence level. To test his _________, he should follow the steps of the scientific method.
    A. hypothesis
    B. theoryC. paradigm D. reasoning
  9. A __________ is an integrated set of ideas that helps to explain, and a __________ is an assertion or prediction that can be tested to determine its accuracy.
    A. theory; hypothesis
    B. generalization; theoryC. hypothesis; theory
    D. theory; generalization
  1. Roberta is 45 years old and has always had a hard time speaking her opinion. A psychoanalytic psychologist might suggest that she has developed this way because:
    A. her parents would not listen to or value her opinion when she was a child.
    B. she has yet to articulate her own set of beliefs and therefore could not have an opinion.C. through a series of rewards and punishments, she has learned not to speak her opinion.
    D. her unmet need for belongingness and love is interfering with her ability to oppose others.
  2. The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the __________ theory of development. A. psychobiological
    B. psychoeducational
    C. psychosocialD. psychoanatomical
  3. One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:
    A. Erik Erikson saw that development occurred throughout the life span.
    B. Erik Erikson believed that development lasted only until the age of 10.
    C. Erik Erikson built his theory from his own philosophy and not from case studies.
    D. Erik Erikson said that sexuality played a key role in the life-span development of the individual.
  4. As defined by Erik Erikson, a __________ is not a catastrophe but a turning point of increased vulnerability and potential.
    A. complex
    B. crossroadC. calamity D. crisis
  5. The first stage in Erikson’s theory is: A. trust versus mistrust.
    B. naïveté versus cynicism.
    C. belief versus unbelief.D. kindness versus callousness.
  6. Marie-Ann is 6 months old. When her mother hears her cries of hunger, she comes and feeds her; and when Marie-Ann is uncomfortable, her mother comes and moves her around until she is comfortable. Through these actions, Marie-Ann is learning that the world is a good place. Marie-Ann is currently in which stage of psychosocial development?A. initiative versus guilt
    B. independence versus dependence C. trust versus mistrust
    D. hope versus despair
  7. The second stage of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development theory is: A. independence versus dependence.
    B. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
    C. initiative versus guilt and shame.D. creativity versus unproductiveness.
  8. Julia is currently 2 years old. She is learning how to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is “no.” This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson’s stage of:
    A. initiative versus guilt.
    B. freedom versus servitude.C. autonomy versus shame and doubt. D. individuality versus identification.
  1. Which of the following of Erik Erikson’s stages would most accurately describe the developmental phase of a preschooler?A. trust versus mistrust
    B. initiative versus guilt
    C. industry versus inferiority
    D. identity versus identity confusion
  2. The stage of industry versus inferiority in Erik Erikson’s developmental theory occurs approximately during which period?
    A. preschool
    B. elementary schoolC. junior high school D. high school
  3. “Students at this age are full of surprises,” comments the high school teacher. “They come in looking and acting like punk rockers one day, then like nuns and monks the next!” Erik Erikson would say these students are:
    A. acting out repressed conflicts.B. actively exploring different roles.
    C. trying to evaluate the usefulness of their lives.
    D. trying to establish intimate relationships with others.
  4. George thinks he has a good life. He just graduated from college, has many close friends, and is engaged to be married. According to Erik Erikson’s theory, George would be developing a sense of:
    A. generativity.
    B. intimacy.C. humility. D. importance.
  5. The main concern of Erik Erikson’s stage of generativity versus stagnation is to: A. help the next generation develop and lead useful lives.
    B. continue on in the ongoing process of improving oneself.
    C. develop healthy ego boundaries in one’s personality.D. help one feel a greater sense of security in her or his job.
  6. Ahkilia is bitter and resentful. She looks back on her life and realizes that she has made many mistakes and was too fearful to reach for her goals. At 82 years old, she knows it is too late to make any significant changes. Ahkilia is living in:
    A. inferiority.B. shame. C. despair. D. guilt.
  7. All of the following are contributions of the psychoanalytic perspective, EXCEPT: A. this perspective includes child, adolescent, and adult developmental stages.
    B. family relationships are a central aspect of development.
    C. an emphasis on a developmental framework.D. emphasizing unconscious aspects of the mind.
  8. Dr. Wong is a cognitive theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of __________ for understanding development.
    A. conscious thoughts
    B. repressed memoriesC. reciprocal interactions
    D. the effects of genes and evolution on the development of intelligence
  1. Ling-Chi is trying to make sense of her world. According to Piaget’s theory, the two processes she uses to do this are __________ and _________.
    A. assimilation; organization
    B. adaptation; cognitionC. memory; accommodation D. organization; adaptation
  2. According to Jean Piaget, each developmental stage is: A. quantitatively the same as the previous stage.
    B. qualitatively the same as the previous stage.
    C. quantitatively different from the previous stage.D. qualitatively different from the previous stage.
  3. In which stage of Piagetian development do infants learn about their environment by coordinating their sensory experiences with their motor activity?
    A. preoperational
    B. sensorimotorC. premotor
    D. sensoriphysical
  4. Children in the preoperational stage of development lack the ability to: A. perform operations (internalized mental actions).
    B. understand the symbolic nature of speech.
    C. distinguish between self and others.D. coordinate their sensory experiences and their physical actions.
  5. Hidalgo is very good at simple addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the abstract algebraic problems that his sister, who is in high school, does. Hidalgo is currently in which of Jean Piaget’s stages of development?
    A. preoperationalB. concrete operational C. formal operational
    D. conceptual operational
  6. According to Jean Piaget, this developmental stage is marked by the development of logical, organized reasoning skills.A. preoperational
    B. concrete operational C. formal operational
    D. conceptual operational
  7. Gustav spends a lot of time thinking about the world as it is now and as it could be if everyone took more personal responsibility for environmental and social conditions. Jean Piaget would say that Gustav is probably in the __________ stage of development.
    A. sensorimotorB. preoperational
    C. concrete operational D. formal operational
  8. Whereas Jean Piaget emphasized the biological processes of cognitive development, Lev Vygotsky emphasized the effects of __________ on development.
    A. social interaction and culture
    B. learned behaviorsC. the unconscious
    D. operations (internalized mental actions)
  1. The structure of Miss Darby’s elementary classroom in New York City is based on the sociocultural cognitive theory of Lev Vygotsky. Her classroom would likely be characterized by all but which of the following?
    A. She has the children work at their own pace.B. She has children work in groups to solve problems.
    C. She assigns much individual independent seatwork.
    D. She is teaching students to use the computer and the Internet.
  2. The information-processing approach to development is concerned mainly with: A. the influence of culture on development.
    B. the manipulation, monitoring, and strategizing of information.
    C. the influence of age on learning.D. the influence of biology and evolution on an individual’s development.
  3. Which of the following is one of the contributions of the cognitive theories noted by your author? A. They emphasize the individual’s active construction of understanding.
    B. They examine the importance of developments in children’s thinking.
    C. They separate children’s thinking clearly into distinct segments.D. They give detailed descriptions of cognitive processes.
  4. Which of the following statements reflects a criticism of cognitive theories?
    A. Piaget’s stages may have been too “pure” in their conception.
    B. The theoretical precepts of the cognitive developmental theory and the sociocultural theory arevirtually identical.
    C. Psychoanalytic theorists argue that the cognitive theories do not give enough credit to consciousthought.
    D. Piaget overestimated the cognitive skills of school-age children and underestimated the cognitive skillof adolescents.
  5. When studying development, behavioral theorists believe that only behavior must be observed because it:
    1. allows inferences about underlying cognitive processes.
    2. is the only direct and measurable indication we have of development.
    3. allows us to understand better the biology that causes our development.
    4. indicates the way in which we have resolved prior crises during development.
  6. According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?A. observable actions B. conscious motives C. the “black box”
    D. intelligence
  7. Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B. F. Skinner would say that the best way to solve this problem is to:
    A. explore experiences from Nellie’s early childhood and see how they have affected her currentbehavior.
    B. interview Nellie to determine her current level of cognitive functioning.
    C. determine how Nellie’s expectations about success have led her to develop this behavior. D. reward Nellie when she does not bang her head, and punish the head-banging behavior.
  8. Jasmine sees a student in her class raise his hand to ask a question. The teacher sharply criticizes him for asking such a “ridiculous” question. According to Albert Bandura, Jasmine will most likely respond to this event by:
    A. continuing to ask questions in class.B. not asking questions even if she wants to. C. ridiculing the teacher.
    D. ignoring the criticized student.
  1. Michelle yells at Sally. Sally hits Michelle. Michelle thinks about how big Sally is and says, “Let’s not fight anymore.” Sally says, “Okay,” and they go off to ride their bikes in the park. This sequence is an example of:
    A. formal operational thinking.B. learning through observation and imitation.
    C. imprinting during critical periods of development.
    D. reciprocal influences of behavior, cognition, and environment.
  2. Which of the following is a criticism of behavioral theory? A. It is too scientific.
    B. It is not empirically supported.
    C. It places too little emphasis on cognitive factorsD. It places too much emphasis on personal factors.
  3. A recent television news report concluded that, from birth, boys are more aggressive than girls. You agree with this because you believe aggression is an evolutionary trait passed on through the generations, because males needed to be more aggressive to aid the survival of the species. Your view reflects the __________ perspective of development.A. ethological B. ecological C. eclectic
    D. exological
  4. In ethological theory, the term __________ is defined as innate learning within a short period of time that involves a newborn’s becoming attached to the first moving thing the newborn sees.
    A. impressing
    B. imprintingC. imparting
    D. immobilizing
  5. John Bowlby’s work in attachment showed that an infant’s attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:
    A. within the first 2 years.
    B. immediately after birth.C. over the first 6 months. D. over the first year.
  6. “Development is best thought of as being strongly influenced by the environment, especially the various social and cultural contexts with which one interacts. To understand development, psychologists must analyze an individual’s interactions within and between these different contexts.” This statement would most likely come from:A. Jean Piaget.
    B. Konrad Lorenz.
    C. B. F. Skinner.
    D. Urie Bronfenbrenner.
  7. Mary’s parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary decides that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary’s actions are being expressed in which of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s systems?
    A. mesosystemB. microsystem C. macrosystem D. mexosystem
  1. According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this aspect of the environment refers to the setting in which an individual lives.A. microsystem B. mesosytem C. chronosystem D. macrosystem
  2. According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this contextual environment consists of the influences exerted by the culture in which an individual lives.
    A. microsystem
    B. mesosystemC. macrosystem D. chronosystem
  3. A criticism of ecological theory is that it underemphasizes __________ and _________. A. biology; cognitive influences
    B. connections between environmental settings; cognitive processes
    C. cognition; critical periodsD. modeling; consequences of behavior
  4. An eclectic theory of development assumes that:
    A. development is a dynamic and variable process.
    B. no single theory can account for all of human development.
    C. the different developmental theories are all correct and complete within their own contexts. D. the more contemporary theories are more accurate than those created before 1950.

100.Felipe is curious about the tipping behavior of patrons at a local restaurant. Occasionally, he sits in the restaurant and watches some of the people around him. He is not able to observe all of the tables in the place, so he formulates his opinions about tipping behavior by the few patrons he can see. What is wrong with Felipe’s research?

A. It is not random. B. It is not correlative. C. It is not systematic. D. It is not ethical.

101.Laboratory observations can be less effective than naturalistic observations because laboratory observations:

A. require unnatural environments.
B. do not entail the use of the scientific method. C. present ethical dilemmas.
D. do not allow for researcher interaction.

102.Dr. Baird collects data on approach behaviors between strangers at the mall on weekend afternoons. A strength of this naturalistic observational approach is that it:
A. occurs in a real-world setting.
B. involves a structured set of interview questions.

C. allows for more control over the observational setting.
D. gives Dr. Baird the best idea of how people behave under stress.

103.Which of the following is the quickest way to gain information from a large amount of people? A. experiment

B. survey
C. test
D. observation

104.Which of the following is a weakness of the survey method of research? A. It uses both open-ended and closed-ended questions.
B. Surveys have the ability to sample a large number of people.
C. Surveys are used for a very wide range of different topics.

D. People are more likely to give socially acceptable or desirable answers.

105.Most students take the ACT or the SAT before they enter college. These tests are examples of __________ measures.
A. case study
B. naturalistic

C. physiological D. standardized

106.Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests mentioned by your author? A. They do not always predict some non-test behaviors.
B. They assume that behaviors are consistent and stable across time.
C. They do not take into account situational variations.

D. They are based on the belief that behavior is stable.

107.Which of the following research methods looks at one person in depth and generally over a long period of time?

A. interview B. survey
C. case study D. experiment

108.Studies show that there is a positive correlation between the number of cute names (e.g., “Snookums” and “Pookie”) couples have for each other and their self-reported feelings of love. This research tells me that:
A. if I give my sweetheart more cute names, it will cause my sweetheart to love me more.

B. if I give my sweetheart more cute names, it will cause my sweetheart to love me less.
C. if my sweetheart has a lot of cute names for me, my sweetheart also tells researchers that he/she loves

me a lot.
D.if my sweetheart has a lot of cute names for me, my sweetheart tells researchers that he/she does not

love me very much.

109.Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. Correlation equals causation.
B. Correlation does not equal causation.
C. Correlation sometimes equals causation. D. Correlation is one kind of causation.

110.Which of the following methods is the best method to determine cause and effect? A. naturalistic observation in the “everyday world”
B. naturalistic observation in the laboratory
C. experimental method

D. correlational method

111.In an experimental study, this group receives the treatment (independent variable). A. control group

B. experimental group C. dependent group D. independent group

112.In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the __________ variable and measures its effects on the __________ variable.
A. dependent; independent
B. independent; dependent

C. operational; dependent D. independent; operational

113.The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the: A. control group does not receive the independent variable.
B. control group is nothing like the experimental group.
C. experimental group is dependent on the control group.

D. control group is not dependent on the experimental group.

114.A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for 8 weeks. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is:
A. number of minutes spent comfortably on the treadmill.
B. the exercise program (high versus low).
C. heart rate during the exercise program.
D. the 8-week duration of the exercise program.

115.Professor Offord wants to assign subjects to experimental groups in such a way that each subject has an equal chance of being in any group. The best way to assign subjects is:
A. subjectively.
B. randomly.

C. systematically. D. independently.

116.In a cross-sectional study, individuals of __________ age groups are compared at one time. A. different

B. similar
C. odd-numbered D. even-numbered

117.Travis has designed a study to compare the muscle coordination of 60-year-olds, 70-year-olds, and 80- year-olds. What research design did he use?
A. longitudinal study
B. cross-sectional study

C. sequential study D. cohort study

118.The longitudinal method of research consists of:
A. studying the same individuals over a long period of time. B. an experimental variable with long-standing effects.
C. a dependent variable that takes a long time to manifest. D. a snapshot of functioning at one point in time.

119.Which of the following is NOT a drawback to longitudinal research? A. subject dropout
B. stability over time
C. cost-effectiveness

D. subject bias

120.To chart the development of intelligence over the life span, researchers spent 1 year testing the intelligence of individuals ranging in age period from childhood to old age. Which approach to the time span of inquiry would they be taking?
A. cross-sectional
B. longitudinal
C. sequential
D. cohort

121.A(n) __________ is a group of people who are born at a similar time in history and share similar experiences.

A. independent group B. dependent group
C. cohort
D. experimental group

122.If you studied the attitudes of elderly people today, you might find that most believe it is better for women to stay at home than to work. This is their attitude, probably because these people grew up during the early and middle part of the twentieth century rather than because they are elderly per se. This is an example of a(n) __________ effect.
A. etic
B. emic
C. cohort
D. correlational

123.It is important to be aware of the concept of cohort effects because they can: A. be mistaken for age effects.
B. cause an experimenter to influence the results of an experiment.
C. bias results when subjects are not randomly assigned to conditions.

D. be taken for true findings, even though they do not exist.

124.Informed consent in research contains all of the following, EXCEPT: A. risks.

B. right to withdraw.
C. detailed hypothesis.
D. description of what is involved.

125.Dr. Bursten recently conducted research on the drinking habits of teenagers. To get his study subjects to be as open and honest with him as possible, he assured them that according to the ethical guidelines of the APA, all information that is collected is:
A. public record.

B. confidential.
C. paid for.
D. socially biased.

126.The American Psychological Association (APA) has developed a code of ethics governing research procedures. The guidelines address all of the following issues, EXCEPT:
A. debriefing.
B. manipulation.

C. informed consent. D. confidentiality.

127.In an experimental design, the dependent variable:
A. can change only in response to a change in the independent variable. B. can change on its own without change to the independent variable. C. can change the way in which the independent variable changes.
D. can change the independent variable.

128.After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This mandated by what APA ethical concept?
A. debriefing
B. sharing of results

C. information disbursement D. sharing of knowledge

129.Dr. Burial is currently conducting research on sexual orientation. When he gets the participants to sign up, he informs them that they will be looking at a series of pictures to gather information on the appeal of differing clothing combinations. The fact that Dr. Burial is not telling the participants the true purpose of the study indicates that he is using:

A. confidentiality. B. debriefing.
C. informed consent. D. deception.

130.Professor Clifton has designed an experiment to study the effects of caffeine on memory. However, she has informed her participants that she is investigating the taste preferences of caffeine drinks. Professor Clifton has:
A. used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if it does not harm the participants.

B. used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if the participants are over the age of 18 years.
C. lied to participants, which is considered ethically unacceptable.
D. distorted the truth, but this is ethically acceptable because she will gather information about their taste

preferences.

131.This theorist proposed that development occurred in the following sequence: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latent stage, and genital stage.

132.This theorist emphasized the need for a child/adult to have his or her social needs met in his or her environment. His/her theory suggested that a psychosocial crisis had to be resolved at each stage of development.

133.This theorist believed that cognitive development proceeded in a series of qualitatively unique stages that were universal.

134.This cognitive theorist focused on the role of culture in the development of mind and thinking.

135.This theorist developed the theory of operant conditioning.

136.This theorist demonstrated that people could learn by observing the rewards and punishments that other people receive.

137.This theorist used suggested the importance of imprinting, which involves the rapid and innate development of an attachment to the first moving object that is seen after birth.

138.This theorist created an ecological systems model of human development. This model suggests that the environment influences the developing person within a series of nested systems.

139.The capacity for change.

140.A setting in which development occurs, such as a school or neighborhood.

141.A way in which a context influences development which is characterized by events that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.

142.A way in which a context influences development which is characterized by events that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances.

143.A way in which a context influences development that is characterized by unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life.

144.This sociocultural context consists of the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.

145.Studies that compare aspects of two or more cultures.

146.A person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.

147.A government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.

148.The developmental period from conception to birth.

149.The developmental period from birth to about 2 years.

150.The period of transition from childhood to early adulthood characterized by rapid physical changes and the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics.

151.The developmental period from about 40 years to about 60 years. It is generally characterized by concern for the next generation and reaching career goals.

152.A way of measuring age that is defined as the number of years that have elapsed since birth.

153.A way of conceptualizing age by which age is characterized by the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs.

154.A way of conceptualizing age in which an individual’s adaptive capacities are compared to those of other individuals of the same chronological age.

155.The issue or controversy over whether development is influenced by biology or environment.

156.The issue or controversy over whether development is quantitative (fluid) or qualitative (stagelike).

157.An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain behavior and make predictions.

158.According to Jean Piaget, this is the stage of cognitive development when children are between the ages of birth and 2 years old. Infants/children at this age “think” by coordinating sensory experiences with physical and motor actions.

159.According to Jean Piaget, this is the stage of cognitive development when children are between the ages of about 7 to 11 years old. Children at this age think with logic.

160.According to Jean Piaget, this is the stage of cognitive development during adolescence and continues into adulthood; abstract thinking is now possible.

161.A theoretical perspective maintaining that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured.

162.Learning that results from experiencing one’s own reinforcements and punishments in the environment.

163.A method of gathering data wherein one person (usually someone unique such as a serial killer or a genius) is studied extensively.

164.A research design that allows one to describe the strength of a relationship between two variables; however, cause and effect cannot be determined.

165.A research design that allows one confidently to make statements regarding cause and effect.

166.A developmental design where people of different ages are studied at the same time.

167.A developmental design where the same people are studied over time.

168.A group of people born in a specified, limited span of years (e.g., the 1960s) who experience historical and cultural events at similar points during their lifespan.

169.List five of the seven characteristics of the life-span perspective discussed by Paul Baltes.

170.Briefly define biological processes, cognitive processes, and socioemotional processes.

171.List the eight life-span developmental periods (in chronological

order).

172.Identify and describe the three ways that age has been conceptualized by life-span researchers.

173.List (in order) the five stages of psychosexual development that were proposed by Sigmund Freud.

174.List (in order) the eight stages of psychosocial development that were proposed by Erik

Erikson.

175.Name the four stages of cognitive development that were proposed by Jean Piaget, and list the key features of the thinking process associated with each.

176.List (in order) the five environmental systems in ecological theory that were proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Provide a short definition/description of each

system.

177.List five ways of collecting information when conducting descriptive research.

178.Explain the goals of descriptive, correlational, and experimental research.

179.List the four primary ethical guidelines that the APA has developed for researchers, and briefly define/describe each of these guidelines.

180.Describe how the traditional approach to development differs from the life-span approach. Which model do you think you would adhere to if you were a developmental psychologist? Why would you choose that model?

181.In additional to chronological age, list and briefly describe the two other ways that “age” has been conceptualized.

182.Briefly discuss the nature-nurture controversy.

183.Briefly discuss the continuity-discontinuity controversy.

184.Compare and contrast, including definitions of, a theory and a hypothesis. How are the two related?

185.Compare and contrast behaviorism and social cognitive theory (describe the similarities and the differences between the two approaches).

186.Explain ethology and the concept of critical periods.

187.Explain the eclectic theoretical orientation.

188.Briefly explain the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment. Describe the relationship between them.

1 Key

1. Development is best defined as a pattern of movement or change that:
A. begins at birth and continues throughout childhood.
B. begins at conception and continues until the person is fully grown.
C. begins at birth and ends when the person begins to decline due to age. D. begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span.

2. Two developmental psychologists are having a conversation. One believes in the traditional view of developmental change; the other believes in the life-span view. Most likely, they would DISAGREE about:
A. the scientific methods used to study development.

B. whether the tabula rasa or innate goodness positions were correct.
C. whether most developmental change occurs in infancy and early childhood or in later phases of

development.
D whether the earlier theorists, such as Freud and Jung, were correct or whether the later theorists, . such as Piaget and Skinner, were correct.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective

Santrock – Chapter 01 #2

3. The traditional and life-span perspectives are contrasting views of developmental change. According to the life-span perspective, when do developmental changes occur?
A. during infancy and early childhood
B. during adolescence and early adulthood

C. during middle and late adulthood D. during childhood and adulthood

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: The Life-Span Perspective

Santrock – Chapter 01 #1

  1. A life-span theorist believes that:
    A. developmental changes occur in the child and adolescent years of life.
    B. the most important developmental changes occur during the first 10 years of life. C. developmental changes occur throughout childhood and adulthood.
    D. the most important developmental changes occur in the middle of life.Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Characteristics of the Life-Span PerspectiveSantrock – Chapter 01 #4
  2. What does the traditional view of human development state about developmental change in adulthood?A. There are few or no changes that occur during adulthood.
    B. There are extreme changes that occur during adulthood.
    C. There are constant changes that occur during adulthood.
    D. There are more changes in earlier adulthood than in later adulthood.Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Characteristics of the Life-Span PerspectiveSantrock – Chapter 01 #5

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective

Santrock – Chapter 01 #3

6. On your first day of class, Professor Red-Elk claims that for too long we have focused on the development of only young children. She argues that the development of adults and elderly people is just as important. This professor is articulating a __________ view.
A. contemporary
B. tabula rasa
C. traditional
D. life-span

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective

7. The upper limit of the human life span is approximately _____ years of age. A. 78

B. 83
C. 122
D. an unlimited number of

Santrock – Chapter 01 #6

8. Life expectancy increased during the 20th century because of improvements in: A. sanitation.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #7

B. nutrition.
C. medicine.
D. all of the above.

9. Life expectancy refers to:
A. the average number of years a person can expect to live. B. the maximum number of years a species can live.
C. the number of years lived by most people.
D. the oldest age of any person in recorded history.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective

Santrock – Chapter 01 #8

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective

Santrock – Chapter 01 #9

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective

10. The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:

A. plastic.
B. contextual.
C. multidimensional. D. lifelong.

11. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:

  1. lifelong.
  2. multidirectional.
  3. multidimensional.
  4. plastic.Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Development Is Multidimensional

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Development Is Lifelong

Santrock – Chapter 01 #10

Santrock – Chapter 01 #11

12. Many older adults become wiser by being able to call on experience, yet their performance on tests of cognitive speed declines. This can be explained by which of the following life-span characteristics?

A. plasticity
B. contextualism
C. multidimensionality D. multidirectionality

13. Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old, is currently going back to college, and is enrolled in a college algebra course. Tzu-Chiang is surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not having a formal math class for over 30 years. Researchers would not be surprised by his performance because it has been shown that development is:

A. plastic.
B. multidimensional. C. lifelong.
D. contextual.

C. normative age-graded influence on development.
D. nonnormative age-graded influence on development.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Development Is Multidirectional

Santrock – Chapter 01 #12

14. By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a:
A. nonnormative life event.
B. multidirectional influence on development.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Development Is Plastic

Santrock – Chapter 01 #13

15. Tyler is 5 years old and has just entered kindergarten. This is an example of: A. a nonnormative influence on development.
B. a normative history-graded influence on development.
C. a normative age-graded influence on development.

D. a nonnormative age-graded influence on development.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #14

16. People today are waiting longer to marry and raise children. In the 1950s, it was more common for people to marry and start a family before they were 20 years old. This difference is an example of a:
A. normative age-graded influence on development.

B. normative history-graded influence on development.
C. multidimensional change in the context of development.
D. nonnormative life event that has changed across development.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #15

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #16

17. Levi was in New York on the day that the World Trade Center was destroyed by terrorists. He is now afraid to fly. This is an example of how a __________ event can influence a person’s development.
A. normative history-graded

B. normative age-graded C. normative life
D. nonnormative stressful

18. When she was a teenager, two members of Anna’s family were killed by a tornado. More than 30 years later, she is still terrified by storms. This is an example of how a(n) __________ event can influence a person’s development.
A. age-graded

B. normative-graded
C. nonnormative life
D. normative history-graded

19. Paul Baltes claimed that nonnormative life events could provide an important context for life-span development. With this concept, the term “nonnormative” refers to an event that:
A. is not likely to happen to very many people.
B. happens to younger children but not to older adults.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #17

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #18

C. used to happen to everyone but no longer occurs very much today. D. happens to almost everyone regardless of when or where they live.

20. Aimee is now 83 years old. Much of her future development will focus on __________ and _________.

A. growth; maintenance.
B. maintenance; regulation of loss. C. regulation of loss; change.
D. growth; regulation.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #19

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Development Involves Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss

Santrock – Chapter 01 #20

21. Constance is 75 years old and still very active. She gardens, hikes, plays chess, and is learning to play the piano. She exercises daily to stay fit. She loves reading, listening to music, and playing with her grandchildren. Her hearing and eyesight are not what they used to be, and she is not as steady
on her feet as when she was younger. She wears a hearing aid, eyeglasses, and sensible shoes to minimize these losses. Researchers would say that Constance is a good example of how development includes:
A. varying contexts.
B. growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss.
C. plasticity.
D. multidisciplinary influences.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Development Involves Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss

Santrock – Chapter 01 #21

22. Researchers from many different fields of study examine human development in an effort to better understand how humans develop. This makes human development a __________ field of study. A. multidirectional
B. cultural

C. multidisciplinary D. multidimensional

23. Culture is based on the:
A. nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language of a people.
B. practices of a large number of people living in the same geographic area. C. exchange of ideas between groups of people who live in the same location. D. behaviors, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #22

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Development Is a Co-Construction of Biology, Culture, and the Individual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #23

24. Dr. Widaman is researching the cultural differences in school performance between Japanese and American children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth graders. One of his groups is from Japan and the other group is from the United States. Dr. Widaman is conducting a __________ study.

A. longitudinal B. correlational C. cross-cultural D. sequential

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Developmental Science Is Multidisciplinary

  1. European Americans:
    A. are not an ethnic group in the United States; they are the majority culture.
    B. form an ethnic group in the world, but not within the United States alone.
    C. do not form an ethnic group, because there is a lack of diversity within this group. D. are an ethnic group like any other ethnic group in the United States or the world.Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and DiversitySantrock – Chapter 01 #25
  2. Hannah and George disagree. Hannah argues that people within an ethnic group all share the same culture. George, by contrast, argues that people of the same ethnic group may or may not share the same culture. Who is right?
    A. Hannah, because sharing the same culture defines an ethnic group.B. George, because diversity exists among people within an ethnic group.
    C Hannah is correct when referring to ethnic groups within the United States; George is right when

. referring to ethnic groups in the entire world.
DHannah is correct when the persons in the ethnic group all share the same socioeconomic status;
. George is correct when the persons in the ethnic group do not share the same socioeconomic status.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #26

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #24

  1. Ethnicity refers to:
    A.the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passedon from generation to generation.
    B. a person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics. C.a controversial classification of people according to real or imagined biological characteristics suchas skin color and blood group.D. a range of characteristics based on heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
    Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and DiversitySantrock – Chapter 01 #27
  2. People with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics are said to share the same:

A. ethnic group.
B. poverty rate.
C. socioeconomic status. D. subculture group.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge

29. The psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male refer to an individual’s: A. gender.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #28

B. sex.
C. sex role.
D. sexual stereotype.

30. Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of uneducated women? A. Canada

B. Cameroon
C. the United States D. Russia

31. Which of the following is an example of social policy? A. a volunteer coordinating an after-school program B. a mother disciplining her son
C. a government lowering federal taxes

D. a college student protesting a tuition increase

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #30

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Social Policy

Santrock – Chapter 01 #31

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #29

32. Kyesha is 80 years old and is typical of a growing number of older adults. Kyesha MOST LIKELY lives:

A. with a spouse.
B. with children.
C. alone.
D. in a nursing home.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Social Policy

Santrock – Chapter 01 #32

33. All of the following trends in older adulthood can be seen in recent decades, except: A. older adults are more likely to be without children.
B. older adults are more likely to be childless.
C. older adults are less likely to live alone.

D. older adults are more likely to be married.

34. The key developmental processes in life-span development include all of the following EXCEPT: A. cognitive processes.

B. biological processes.
C. socioemotional processes. D. physical/sensory processes.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Social Policy

Santrock – Chapter 01 #33

35. Dante is 2 years old. His mother took him to the doctor and discovered that he had gained 5 pounds and had grown 2 inches since his last physical exam. This is an example of the role of __________ processes in development.
A. cognitive

B. biological
C. socioemotional D. physical

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes

Santrock – Chapter 01 #34

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship among biological development, cognitive development, and social development?
    A. The three are processes which are independent of one another.
    B. The three are intertwined processes throughout the life span.C. The three are less important than culture when studying development. D. The three differ in their importance at different points in the life cycle.Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Connecting Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional ProcessesSantrock – Chapter 01 #36
  2. Our relationships with others, changes in emotions, and changes in personality are all examples of __________ processes.

38. Johnathan is almost completely dependent on his parents. He is just learning to langue and recognize his own symbolic thoughts. Johnathan is in the period of development called:
A. late childhood.
B. middle childhood.

C. early childhood. D. infancy.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Connecting Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes

Santrock – Chapter 01 #37

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Biological Processes

Santrock – Chapter 01 #35

A. cognitive
B. biological
C. socioemotional D. physical

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #38

39. Joshua spends all of his free time doing homework and studying so that he will get good grades and his parents will be proud of his achievements. Joshua is most likely in the period of development called:
A. early childhood.

B. middle childhood. C. adolescence.
D. early adulthood.

40. Travis spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He also has been thinking about how his personal relationship is going and considering whether it could be long-term and lead to establishing a family. Travis is most likely in:
A. late adolescence.

B. early adulthood. C. middle adulthood. D. late adulthood.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #39

41. The developmental period that runs from approximately 40 years of age to about 60 years of age is:

  1. early adulthood.
  2. the nesting years.
  3. middle adulthood.
  4. the crooning years.

42. Jessica spends a lot of time thinking about the choices she has made in her life and the events she has witnessed. She is adjusting to decreasing strength and health, and she has made several lifestyle changes as a result. Jessica is most likely in:
A. adolescence.

B. early adulthood. C. middle adulthood. D. late adulthood.

43. Which of the following life-span phases lasts the longest? A. middle and late childhood

B. adolescence
C. middle adulthood D. late adulthood

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #42

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #43

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #40

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #41

44. Development in the young-old is characterized by considerable _________, but development in the oldest-old is characterized by __________
A. cognitive gains; cognitive losses.
B. functional gains; functional losses.

C. adaptability; inflexibility. D. adaptability; frailty.

45. The onset of puberty and the onset of menopause are examples of __________ age. A. social

B. chronological C. biological
D. psychological

46. Biology is to __________ as environment is to _________. A. nature; nurture.

B. nurture; nature.
C. maturation; nature. D. nature; maturation.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Conceptions of Age

Santrock – Chapter 01 #45

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Conceptions of Age

Santrock – Chapter 01 #46

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #44

47. Dr. Borthwick-Duffy believes people are primarily influenced by the environment and learned experiences, so she believes __________ plays a more powerful role in human development. A. nurture
B. maturation

C. change D. nature

48. Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?

A. change
B. stability C. maturation D. continuity

49. Winona was found to have childhood depression; she goes on to have depression for the rest of her adult life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
A. change
B. stability

C. maturation D. discontinuity

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Nature and Nurture

Santrock – Chapter 01 #47

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Stability and Change

Santrock – Chapter 01 #48

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Stability and Change

Santrock – Chapter 01 #49

50. Continuity is to __________ as discontinuity is to _________. A. fluid; rigid.

B. gradual; abrupt.
C. maturation; nurture. D. adulthood; childhood.

51. The concept of discontinuity is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT: A. qualitative change.

B. quantitative change. C. sequence of stages. D. distinct change.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #50

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Continuity and Discontinuity

52. Life-span psychologists generally agree that:
A. continuity correctly characterizes development; discontinuity does not.
B. discontinuity correctly characterizes development; continuity does not.
C. development cannot be characterized as either continuous or discontinuous. D. developmental change can be both continuous and discontinuous.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #51

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Continuity and Discontinuity

53. Life-span psychologists generally agree that:
A. stability correctly characterizes development; change does not. B. change correctly characterizes development; stability does not. C. neither stability nor change correctly characterizes development. D. developmental includes both stability and change.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Continuity and Discontinuity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #52

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Continuity and Discontinuity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #53

54. An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps us to explain phenomena and make predictions is known as a(n):

A. idea.
B. scientific method. C. theory.
D. hypothesis.

55. Martin believes that the length of a person’s foot is directly correlated with his or her intelligence level. To test his _________, he should follow the steps of the scientific method.
A. hypothesis
B. theory

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Theories of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #54

C. paradigm D. reasoning

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Theories of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #55

56. A __________ is an integrated set of ideas that helps to explain, and a __________ is an assertion or prediction that can be tested to determine its accuracy.
A. theory; hypothesis
B. generalization; theory

C. hypothesis; theory
D. theory; generalization

  1. Roberta is 45 years old and has always had a hard time speaking her opinion. A psychoanalytic psychologist might suggest that she has developed this way because:
    A. her parents would not listen to or value her opinion when she was a child.
    B. she has yet to articulate her own set of beliefs and therefore could not have an opinion.C. through a series of rewards and punishments, she has learned not to speak her opinion.
    D. her unmet need for belongingness and love is interfering with her ability to oppose others.Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Theories of DevelopmentSantrock – Chapter 01 #57
  2. The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the __________ theory of development. A. psychobiological

B. psychoeducational C. psychosocial
D. psychoanatomical

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Theories of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #56

  1. One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:
    A. Erik Erikson saw that development occurred throughout the life span.
    B. Erik Erikson believed that development lasted only until the age of 10.
    C. Erik Erikson built his theory from his own philosophy and not from case studies.
    D. Erik Erikson said that sexuality played a key role in the life-span development of the individual.Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial TheorySantrock – Chapter 01 #59
  2. As defined by Erik Erikson, a __________ is not a catastrophe but a turning point of increased vulnerability and potential.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #58

A. complex B. crossroad C. calamity D. crisis

61. The first stage in Erikson’s theory is: A. trust versus mistrust.

B. naïveté versus cynicism.
C. belief versus unbelief.
D. kindness versus callousness.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #60

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #61

62. Marie-Ann is 6 months old. When her mother hears her cries of hunger, she comes and feeds her; and when Marie-Ann is uncomfortable, her mother comes and moves her around until she is comfortable. Through these actions, Marie-Ann is learning that the world is a good place. Marie-Ann is currently in which stage of psychosocial development?

A. initiative versus guilt
B. independence versus dependence C. trust versus mistrust
D. hope versus despair

63. The second stage of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development theory is: A. independence versus dependence.
B. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
C. initiative versus guilt and shame.

D. creativity versus unproductiveness.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #62

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

64. Julia is currently 2 years old. She is learning how to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is “no.” This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson’s stage of:
A. initiative versus guilt.
B. freedom versus servitude.

C. autonomy versus shame and doubt. D. individuality versus identification.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #63

65. Which of the following of Erik Erikson’s stages would most accurately describe the developmental phase of a preschooler?

A. trust versus mistrust
B. initiative versus guilt
C. industry versus inferiority
D. identity versus identity confusion

66. The stage of industry versus inferiority in Erik Erikson’s developmental theory occurs approximately during which period?

A. preschool
B. elementary school C. junior high school D. high school

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #64

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #65

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #66

67. “Students at this age are full of surprises,” comments the high school teacher. “They come in looking and acting like punk rockers one day, then like nuns and monks the next!” Erik Erikson would say these students are:
A. acting out repressed conflicts.

B. actively exploring different roles.
C. trying to evaluate the usefulness of their lives.
D. trying to establish intimate relationships with others.

68. George thinks he has a good life. He just graduated from college, has many close friends, and is engaged to be married. According to Erik Erikson’s theory, George would be developing a sense of:
A. generativity.

B. intimacy. C. humility. D. importance.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #67

69. The main concern of Erik Erikson’s stage of generativity versus stagnation is to: A. help the next generation develop and lead useful lives.
B. continue on in the ongoing process of improving oneself.
C. develop healthy ego boundaries in one’s personality.

D. help one feel a greater sense of security in her or his job.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #68

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

  1. Ahkilia is bitter and resentful. She looks back on her life and realizes that she has made many mistakes and was too fearful to reach for her goals. At 82 years old, she knows it is too late to make any significant changes. Ahkilia is living in:
    A. inferiority.
    B. shame.
    C. despair.
    D. guilt.Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial TheorySantrock – Chapter 01 #70
  2. All of the following are contributions of the psychoanalytic perspective, EXCEPT: A. this perspective includes child, adolescent, and adult developmental stages.
    B. family relationships are a central aspect of development.
    C. an emphasis on a developmental framework.

72. Dr. Wong is a cognitive theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of __________ for understanding development.

A. conscious thoughts
B. repressed memories
C. reciprocal interactions
D. the effects of genes and evolution on the development of intelligence

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #69

D. emphasizing unconscious aspects of the mind.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theories

Santrock – Chapter 01 #71

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conscious Page Reference: Cognitive Theories

Santrock – Chapter 01 #72

73. Ling-Chi is trying to make sense of her world. According to Piaget’s theory, the two processes she uses to do this are __________ and _________.
A. assimilation; organization
B. adaptation; cognition

C. memory; accommodation D. organization; adaptation

74. According to Jean Piaget, each developmental stage is: A. quantitatively the same as the previous stage.
B. qualitatively the same as the previous stage.
C. quantitatively different from the previous stage.

D. qualitatively different from the previous stage.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #73

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

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75. In which stage of Piagetian development do infants learn about their environment by coordinating their sensory experiences with their motor activity?
A. preoperational
B. sensorimotor

C. premotor
D. sensoriphysical

Santrock – Chapter 01 #75

D. coordinate their sensory experiences and their physical actions.
Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #76

  1. Hidalgo is very good at simple addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the abstract algebraic problems that his sister, who is in high school, does. Hidalgo is currently in which of Jean Piaget’s stages of development?
    A. preoperational
    B. concrete operational
    C. formal operational
    D. conceptual operationalAuthor: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental TheorySantrock – Chapter 01 #77
  2. According to Jean Piaget, this developmental stage is marked by the development of logical, organized reasoning skills.

76. Children in the preoperational stage of development lack the ability to: A. perform operations (internalized mental actions).
B. understand the symbolic nature of speech.
C. distinguish between self and others.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual

A. preoperational
B. concrete operational C. formal operational
D. conceptual operational

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #78

79. Gustav spends a lot of time thinking about the world as it is now and as it could be if everyone took more personal responsibility for environmental and social conditions. Jean Piaget would say that Gustav is probably in the __________ stage of development.
A. sensorimotor

B. preoperational
C. concrete operational D. formal operational

80. Whereas Jean Piaget emphasized the biological processes of cognitive development, Lev Vygotsky emphasized the effects of __________ on development.
A. social interaction and culture
B. learned behaviors

81. The structure of Miss Darby’s elementary classroom in New York City is based on the sociocultural cognitive theory of Lev Vygotsky. Her classroom would likely be characterized by all but which of the following?
A. She has the children work at their own pace.

B. She has children work in groups to solve problems.
C. She assigns much individual independent seatwork.
D. She is teaching students to use the computer and the Internet.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Vygotskys Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #79

C. the unconscious
D. operations (internalized mental actions)

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Vygotskys Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #80

Santrock – Chapter 01 #81

D. the influence of biology and evolution on an individual’s development.
Page Reference: Information-Processing Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #82

83. Which of the following is one of the contributions of the cognitive theories noted by your author? A. They emphasize the individual’s active construction of understanding.
B. They examine the importance of developments in children’s thinking.
C. They separate children’s thinking clearly into distinct segments.

82. The information-processing approach to development is concerned mainly with: A. the influence of culture on development.
B. the manipulation, monitoring, and strategizing of information.
C. the influence of age on learning.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge

D. They give detailed descriptions of cognitive processes.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #83

84. Which of the following statements reflects a criticism of cognitive theories?

A. Piaget’s stages may have been too “pure” in their conception.
B. The theoretical precepts of the cognitive developmental theory and the sociocultural theory are

virtually identical.
C. Psychoanalytic theorists argue that the cognitive theories do not give enough credit to conscious

thought.
D. Piaget overestimated the cognitive skills of school-age children and underestimated the cognitive

skill of adolescents.

  1. When studying development, behavioral theorists believe that only behavior must be observed because it:A. allows inferences about underlying cognitive processes.
    B. is the only direct and measurable indication we have of development.
    C. allows us to understand better the biology that causes our development.
    D. indicates the way in which we have resolved prior crises during development.Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Behavioral and Social Cognitive TheoriesSantrock – Chapter 01 #85
  2. According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?

A. observable actions B. conscious motives C. the “black box” D. intelligence

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Evaluating Cognitive Theories

Santrock – Chapter 01 #84

  1. Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B. F. Skinner would say that the best way to solve this problem is to:
    A. explore experiences from Nellie’s early childhood and see how they have affected her currentbehavior.
    B. interview Nellie to determine her current level of cognitive functioning.
    C. determine how Nellie’s expectations about success have led her to develop this behavior. D. reward Nellie when she does not bang her head, and punish the head-banging behavior.Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Skinners Operant ConditioningSantrock – Chapter 01 #87
  2. Jasmine sees a student in her class raise his hand to ask a question. The teacher sharply criticizes him for asking such a “ridiculous” question. According to Albert Bandura, Jasmine will most likely respond to this event by:
    A. continuing to ask questions in class.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories

Santrock – Chapter 01 #86

B. not asking questions even if she wants to. C. ridiculing the teacher.
D. ignoring the criticized student.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Banduras Social Cognitive Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #88

89. Michelle yells at Sally. Sally hits Michelle. Michelle thinks about how big Sally is and says, “Let’s not fight anymore.” Sally says, “Okay,” and they go off to ride their bikes in the park. This sequence is an example of:
A. formal operational thinking.

B. learning through observation and imitation.
C. imprinting during critical periods of development.
D. reciprocal influences of behavior, cognition, and environment.

90. Which of the following is a criticism of behavioral theory? A. It is too scientific.

B. It is not empirically supported.
C. It places too little emphasis on cognitive factors D. It places too much emphasis on personal factors.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Banduras Social Cognitive Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #89

91. A recent television news report concluded that, from birth, boys are more aggressive than girls.
You agree with this because you believe aggression is an evolutionary trait passed on through the generations, because males needed to be more aggressive to aid the survival of the species. Your view reflects the __________ perspective of development.

A. ethological B. ecological C. eclectic
D. exological

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Evaluating Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories

Santrock – Chapter 01 #90

92. In ethological theory, the term __________ is defined as innate learning within a short period of time that involves a newborn’s becoming attached to the first moving thing the newborn sees.
A. impressing
B. imprinting

93. John Bowlby’s work in attachment showed that an infant’s attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:
A. within the first 2 years.
B. immediately after birth.

C. over the first 6 months. D. over the first year.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Ethological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #91

C. imparting
D. immobilizing

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Ethological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #92

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Ethological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #93

94. “Development is best thought of as being strongly influenced by the environment, especially
the various social and cultural contexts with which one interacts. To understand development, psychologists must analyze an individual’s interactions within and between these different contexts.” This statement would most likely come from:

A. Jean Piaget.
B. Konrad Lorenz.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Urie Bronfenbrenner.

95. Mary’s parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary decides that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary’s actions are being expressed in which of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s systems?
A. mesosystem

B. microsystem C. macrosystem D. mexosystem

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Ecological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #94

96. According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this aspect of the environment refers to the setting in which an individual lives.

A. microsystem B. mesosytem C. chronosystem D. macrosystem

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Ecological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #95

97. According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this contextual environment consists of the influences exerted by the culture in which an individual lives.
A. microsystem
B. mesosystem

C. macrosystem D. chronosystem

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Ecological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #96

98. A criticism of ecological theory is that it underemphasizes __________ and _________. A. biology; cognitive influences
B. connections between environmental settings; cognitive processes
C. cognition; critical periods

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Ecological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #97

D. modeling; consequences of behavior

99. An eclectic theory of development assumes that:
A. development is a dynamic and variable process.
B. no single theory can account for all of human development.
C. the different developmental theories are all correct and complete within their own contexts. D. the more contemporary theories are more accurate than those created before 1950.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Evaluating Ecological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #98

Santrock – Chapter 01 #99

100. Felipe is curious about the tipping behavior of patrons at a local restaurant. Occasionally, he sits in the restaurant and watches some of the people around him. He is not able to observe all of the tables in the place, so he formulates his opinions about tipping behavior by the few patrons he can see. What is wrong with Felipe’s research?

A. It is not random.
B. It is not correlative. C. It is not systematic. D. It is not ethical.

101. Laboratory observations can be less effective than naturalistic observations because laboratory observations:

A. require unnatural environments.
B. do not entail the use of the scientific method. C. present ethical dilemmas.
D. do not allow for researcher interaction.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

Santrock – Chapter 01 #100

102. Dr. Baird collects data on approach behaviors between strangers at the mall on weekend afternoons. A strength of this naturalistic observational approach is that it:
A. occurs in a real-world setting.
B. involves a structured set of interview questions.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Observation

Santrock – Chapter 01 #101

C. allows for more control over the observational setting.
D. gives Dr. Baird the best idea of how people behave under stress.

103. Which of the following is the quickest way to gain information from a large amount of people? A. experiment

B. survey
C. test
D. observation

104. Which of the following is a weakness of the survey method of research? A. It uses both open-ended and closed-ended questions.
B. Surveys have the ability to sample a large number of people.
C. Surveys are used for a very wide range of different topics.

D. People are more likely to give socially acceptable or desirable answers.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Survey and Interview

Santrock – Chapter 01 #103

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Survey and Interview

Santrock – Chapter 01 #104

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Observation

Santrock – Chapter 01 #102

105. Most students take the ACT or the SAT before they enter college. These tests are examples of __________ measures.

A. case study
B. naturalistic C. physiological D. standardized

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Standardized Test

Santrock – Chapter 01 #105

106. Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests mentioned by your author? A. They do not always predict some non-test behaviors.
B. They assume that behaviors are consistent and stable across time.
C. They do not take into account situational variations.

D. They are based on the belief that behavior is stable.

107. Which of the following research methods looks at one person in depth and generally over a long period of time?

A. interview B. survey
C. case study D. experiment

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Standardized Test

Santrock – Chapter 01 #106

108. Studies show that there is a positive correlation between the number of cute names (e.g., “Snookums” and “Pookie”) couples have for each other and their self-reported feelings of love. This research tells me that:
A. if I give my sweetheart more cute names, it will cause my sweetheart to love me more.

B. if I give my sweetheart more cute names, it will cause my sweetheart to love me less.
C. if my sweetheart has a lot of cute names for me, my sweetheart also tells researchers that he/she

loves me a lot.
D.if my sweetheart has a lot of cute names for me, my sweetheart tells researchers that he/she does not

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Case Study

Santrock – Chapter 01 #107

love me very much.

109. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. Correlation equals causation.
B. Correlation does not equal causation.
C. Correlation sometimes equals causation. D. Correlation is one kind of causation.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Correlational Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #108

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Correlational Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #109

110. Which of the following methods is the best method to determine cause and effect? A. naturalistic observation in the “everyday world”
B. naturalistic observation in the laboratory
C. experimental method

D. correlational method

111. In an experimental study, this group receives the treatment (independent variable). A. control group

B. experimental group C. dependent group D. independent group

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Experimental Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #110

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Experimental Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #111

112. In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the __________ variable and measures its effects on the __________ variable.

A. dependent; independent B. independent; dependent C. operational; dependent D. independent; operational

113. The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the: A. control group does not receive the independent variable.
B. control group is nothing like the experimental group.
C. experimental group is dependent on the control group.

D. control group is not dependent on the experimental group.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #112

115. Professor Offord wants to assign subjects to experimental groups in such a way that each subject has an equal chance of being in any group. The best way to assign subjects is:
A. subjectively.
B. randomly.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Independent and Dependent Variables

114. A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for 8 weeks. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is:

A. number of minutes spent comfortably on the treadmill. B. the exercise program (high versus low).
C. heart rate during the exercise program.
D. the 8-week duration of the exercise program.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Experimental and Control Groups

Santrock – Chapter 01 #113

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Independent and Dependent Variables

Santrock – Chapter 01 #114

C. systematically. D. independently.

116. In a cross-sectional study, individuals of __________ age groups are compared at one time. A. different

B. similar
C. odd-numbered D. even-numbered

117. Travis has designed a study to compare the muscle coordination of 60-year-olds, 70-year-olds, and 80- year-olds. What research design did he use?
A. longitudinal study
B. cross-sectional study

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Experimental and Control Groups

Santrock – Chapter 01 #115

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Cross-Sectional Approach

Santrock – Chapter 01 #116

C. sequential study D. cohort study

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Cross-Sectional Approach

Santrock – Chapter 01 #117

  1. The longitudinal method of research consists of:A. studying the same individuals over a long period of time. B. an experimental variable with long-standing effects.
    C. a dependent variable that takes a long time to manifest. D. a snapshot of functioning at one point in time.
  2. Which of the following is NOT a drawback to longitudinal research? A. subject dropoutB. stability over time C. cost-effectiveness D. subject bias

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Longitudinal Approach

Santrock – Chapter 01 #118

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Longitudinal Approach

Santrock – Chapter 01 #119

120. To chart the development of intelligence over the life span, researchers spent 1 year testing the intelligence of individuals ranging in age period from childhood to old age. Which approach to the time span of inquiry would they be taking?
A. cross-sectional

B. longitudinal C. sequential D. cohort

121. A(n) __________ is a group of people who are born at a similar time in history and share similar experiences.

A. independent group B. dependent group C. cohort
D. experimental group

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Longitudinal Approach

Santrock – Chapter 01 #120

122. If you studied the attitudes of elderly people today, you might find that most believe it is better for women to stay at home than to work. This is their attitude, probably because these people grew up during the early and middle part of the twentieth century rather than because they are elderly per se. This is an example of a(n) __________ effect.

A. etic
B. emic
C. cohort
D. correlational

123. It is important to be aware of the concept of cohort effects because they can: A. be mistaken for age effects.

B. cause an experimenter to influence the results of an experiment.
C. bias results when subjects are not randomly assigned to conditions. D. be taken for true findings, even though they do not exist.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Cohort Effects

Santrock – Chapter 01 #122

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Cohort Effects

Santrock – Chapter 01 #123

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Cohort Effects

Santrock – Chapter 01 #121

124. Informed consent in research contains all of the following, EXCEPT: A. risks.

B. right to withdraw.
C. detailed hypothesis.
D. description of what is involved.

125. Dr. Bursten recently conducted research on the drinking habits of teenagers. To get his study subjects to be as open and honest with him as possible, he assured them that according to the ethical guidelines of the APA, all information that is collected is:
A. public record.

B. confidential. C. paid for.
D. socially biased.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Factual Page Reference: Conducting Ethical Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #124

126. The American Psychological Association (APA) has developed a code of ethics governing research procedures. The guidelines address all of the following issues, EXCEPT:
A. debriefing.
B. manipulation.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Conducting Ethical Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #125

C. informed consent. D. confidentiality.

127. In an experimental design, the dependent variable:
A. can change only in response to a change in the independent variable. B. can change on its own without change to the independent variable. C. can change the way in which the independent variable changes.
D. can change the independent variable.

Santrock – Chapter 01 #126

Author: Santrock Blooms: Conceptual Page Reference: Experimental and Control Groups

Santrock – Chapter 01 #127

128. After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This mandated by what APA ethical concept?
A. debriefing
B. sharing of results

129. Dr. Burial is currently conducting research on sexual orientation. When he gets the participants to sign up, he informs them that they will be looking at a series of pictures to gather information on the appeal of differing clothing combinations. The fact that Dr. Burial is not telling the participants the true purpose of the study indicates that he is using:

A. confidentiality. B. debriefing.
C. informed consent. D. deception.

Author: Santrock Blooms: Factual Page Reference: Conducting Ethical Research

C. information disbursement D. sharing of knowledge

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Conducting Ethical Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #128

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Conducting Ethical Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #129

130. Professor Clifton has designed an experiment to study the effects of caffeine on memory. However, she has informed her participants that she is investigating the taste preferences of caffeine drinks. Professor Clifton has:
A. used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if it does not harm the participants.

B. used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if the participants are over the age of 18 years.
C. lied to participants, which is considered ethically unacceptable.
D. distorted the truth, but this is ethically acceptable because she will gather information about their

taste preferences.

131. This theorist proposed that development occurred in the following sequence: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latent stage, and genital stage.

Sigmund Freud

132. This theorist emphasized the need for a child/adult to have his or her social needs met in his or her environment. His/her theory suggested that a psychosocial crisis had to be resolved at each stage of development.

Erik Erikson

133. This theorist believed that cognitive development proceeded in a series of qualitatively unique stages that were universal.

Jean Piaget

134. This cognitive theorist focused on the role of culture in the development of mind and thinking. Lev Vygotsky

135. This theorist developed the theory of operant conditioning. B. F. Skinner

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Vygotskys Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #134

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Skinners Operant Conditioning

Santrock – Chapter 01 #135

Author: Santrock Blooms: Applied Page Reference: Conducting Ethical Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #130

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Freuds Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #131

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Eriksons Psychosocial Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #132

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #133

136. This theorist demonstrated that people could learn by observing the rewards and punishments that other people receive.

Albert Bandura

137. This theorist used suggested the importance of imprinting, which involves the rapid and innate development of an attachment to the first moving object that is seen after birth.

Konrad Lorenz

138. This theorist created an ecological systems model of human development. This model suggests that the environment influences the developing person within a series of nested systems.

Urie Bronfenbrenner

  1. The capacity for change. plasticity
  2. A setting in which development occurs, such as a school or neighborhood. context

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Ecological Theory

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Development Is Plastic

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #140

141. A way in which a context influences development which is characterized by events that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.

normative age-graded influences

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Banduras Social Cognitive Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #136

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Ethological Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #137

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #141

142. A way in which a context influences development which is characterized by events that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances.

normative history-graded influences

143. A way in which a context influences development that is characterized by unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life.

nonnormative life events

144. This sociocultural context consists of the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.

culture

145. Studies that compare aspects of two or more cultures. cross-cultural studies

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #144

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

Santrock – Chapter 01 #145

146. A person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.

socioeconomic status

147. A government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens. social policy

Santrock – Chapter 01 #146

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Social Policy

Santrock – Chapter 01 #147

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #142

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Development Is Contextual

Santrock – Chapter 01 #143

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

  1. The developmental period from conception to birth. prenatal period
  2. The developmental period from birth to about 2 years. infancy

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #148

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #149

150. The period of transition from childhood to early adulthood characterized by rapid physical changes and the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics.

adolescence

151. The developmental period from about 40 years to about 60 years. It is generally characterized by concern for the next generation and reaching career goals.

middle adulthood

  1. A way of measuring age that is defined as the number of years that have elapsed since birth. chronological ageAuthor: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Conceptions of AgeSantrock – Chapter 01 #152
  2. A way of conceptualizing age by which age is characterized by the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs.

biological age

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Periods of Development

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Periods of Development

Santrock – Chapter 01 #151

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Conceptions of Age

Santrock – Chapter 01 #153

154. A way of conceptualizing age in which an individual’s adaptive capacities are compared to those of other individuals of the same chronological age.

psychological age

  1. The issue or controversy over whether development is influenced by biology or environment. nature-nurture issue (or debate)Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Nature and NurtureSantrock – Chapter 01 #155
  2. The issue or controversy over whether development is quantitative (fluid) or qualitative (stagelike).

continuity-discontinuity issue (or debate)

  1. An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain behavior and make predictions. theoryAuthor: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Theories of DevelopmentSantrock – Chapter 01 #157
  2. According to Jean Piaget, this is the stage of cognitive development when children are between the ages of birth and 2 years old. Infants/children at this age “think” by coordinating sensory experiences with physical and motor actions.

sensorimotor

159. According to Jean Piaget, this is the stage of cognitive development when children are between the ages of about 7 to 11 years old. Children at this age think with logic.

concrete operations

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Conceptions of Age

Santrock – Chapter 01 #154

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Continuity and Discontinuity

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

Santrock – Chapter 01 #159

160. According to Jean Piaget, this is the stage of cognitive development during adolescence and continues into adulthood; abstract thinking is now possible.

formal operational

161. A theoretical perspective maintaining that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured.

behaviorism

162. Learning that results from experiencing one’s own reinforcements and punishments in the environment.

operant conditioning

163. A method of gathering data wherein one person (usually someone unique such as a serial killer or a genius) is studied extensively.

case study

164. A research design that allows one to describe the strength of a relationship between two variables; however, cause and effect cannot be determined.

correlational design

165. A research design that allows one confidently to make statements regarding cause and effect. experimental design

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Experimental Research

Santrock – Chapter 01 #165

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories

Santrock – Chapter 01 #161

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Skinners Operant Conditioning

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Case Study

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Correlational Research

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166. A developmental design where people of different ages are studied at the same time. cross-sectional

167. A developmental design where the same people are studied over time. longitudinal

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Cross-Sectional Approach

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Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Longitudinal Approach

Santrock – Chapter 01 #167

168. A group of people born in a specified, limited span of years (e.g., the 1960s) who experience historical and cultural events at similar points during their lifespan.

cohort

Author: Santrock Blooms: Knowledge Page Reference: Cohort Effects

Santrock – Chapter 01 #168

essentials of lifespan development 2nd edition test bank santrock

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