Essentials of Lifespan Development 3rd edition Santrock Test Bank

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  • Published: 2015
  • ISBN-10: 0078035422
  • ISBN-13: 978-0078035425

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essentials of lifespan development 3rd edition test bank

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Development can be defined as the pattern of movement or change that:
  2. begins at childhood and continues until adulthood.
  3. begins at conception and continues until adulthood.
  4. begins at birth and continues through the human life span.
  5. begins at conception and continues through the human life span.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 2

 

  1. The _____ approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, especially during infancy, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age.
  2. prescriptive
  3. constructivist
  4. traditional
  5. evolutionary

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 3

 

  1. When taking his psychology class, Professor Sharma emphasizes that developmental change occurs throughout adulthood as well as childhood. Professor Sharma is taking a(n) _____ approach to developmental change.
  2. life-span
  3. evolutionary
  4. normative
  5. constructivist

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 3

 

  1. Two developmental psychologists are having a conversation. One believes in the traditional approach of developmental change; the other believes in the life-span approach. Which of the following issues would they most likely differ on?
  2. Whether developmental change starts at birth or at conception
  3. Whether the tabula rasa or innate goodness positions were correct
  4. Whether most developmental change occurs from birth to adolescence or throughout adulthood as well as childhood
  5. Whether the earlier theorists, such as Freud and Jung, were correct or whether the later theorists such as Piaget and Skinner were correct about developmental change

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 3

 

  1. On your first day of class, Professor Red-Elk claims that for too long we have focused on the development of young children, especially infants. She argues that the development of adults and elderly people is just as important. This professor is articulating a(n) _____ approach.
  2. evolutionary
  3. constructivist
  4. normative
  5. life-span

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 3

 

  1. The maximum life span of humans:
  2. has increased over time.
  3. has not changed since the beginning of recorded history.
  4. has matched their life expectancy in recent times.
  5. is about 65 years as the first decade of the twenty-first century draws to a close.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 3

 

  1. Life expectancy in the United States has increased by _____ years during the twentieth century.
  2. 20
  3. 10
  4. 30
  5. 50

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 3

 

  1. The life expectancy in the United States is currently:
  2. 60 years.
  3. 78 years.
  4. 85 years.
  5. 53 years.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 3

 

  1. If you subscribe to Paul Baltes’ perspective of life-span development, which of the following statements would you NOT agree with?
  2. Development is lifelong
  3. Development is unidirectional
  4. Development is plastic
  5. Development is contextual

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 4

 

  1. The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:
  2. plastic.
  3. contextual.
  4. multidimensional.
  5. lifelong.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 4

 

  1. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:
  2. lifelong.
  3. contextual.
  4. multidimensional.
  5. plastic.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 4

 

  1. Many individuals become wiser as they age, but their performance on tasks that require speed in processing information starts to decline. This illustrates how throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink, or how development is:
  2. plastic.
  3. contextual.
  4. multidisciplinary.
  5. multidirectional.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 4

 

  1. _____ means the capacity for change.
  2. Elasticity
  3. Plasticity
  4. Contextuality
  5. Tenacity

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 4

 

  1. Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old and is currently enrolled in a college algebra course. He is pleasantly surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not taking a formal math class for over 30 years. He is able to learn new mathematical concepts with relative ease. Researchers would consider this an instance that illustrates how development is:
  2. plastic.
  3. multidisciplinary.
  4. lifelong.
  5. contextual.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 4

 

  1. “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.” This old saying refutes Paul Baltes’ life-span perspective that views development as being:
  2. plastic.
  3. multidisciplinary.
  4. lifelong.
  5. contextual.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 4

 

  1. Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all share an interest in unlocking the mysteries of development through the life span. This indicates how development is:
  2. multidirectional.
  3. plastic.
  4. multidisciplinary.
  5. multidimensional.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 5

 

  1. “Individuals are changing beings in a changing world.” Which characteristic of development is reflected in this statement?
  2. Development is multidisciplinary
  3. Development is contextual
  4. Development is multidimensional
  5. Development is multidirectional

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 5

 

  1. _____ include biological processes such as puberty and menopause. They also include sociocultural, environmental processes such as beginning formal education and retirement.
  2. Normative age-graded influences
  3. Normative history-graded influences
  4. Normative life events
  5. Nonnormative life events

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 5

 

  1. By age 51, most women enter menopause. This is an example of how a biological process can exert a _____ influence on development.
  2. plastic
  3. multidirectional
  4. normative age-graded
  5. nonnormative age-graded

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 5

 

  1. Influences that generally effect a generation, for example, the effect of the Vietnam war on the baby boomers, are considered _____ influences.
  2. nonnormative multidirectional
  3. normative age-graded
  4. nonnormative age-graded
  5. normative history-graded

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 5

 

  1. The cultural makeup of the U.S. population has changed over the past few years due to immigration and other factors. Such long-term changes in the genetic and cultural makeup of a population are part of:
  2. nonnormative multidirectional change.
  3. normative historical change.
  4. nonnormative life events.
  5. nonnormative demographic change.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 5

 

  1. When she was a child, Anna’s home was wrecked by a tornado and her neighbor was killed. More than 30 years later, she is still terrified of storms. This is an example of how a ____ event can influence a person’s development.
  2. normative age-graded
  3. normative generational
  4. nonnormative life
  5. normative history-graded

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 5

 

  1. Nonnormative life events:
  2. do not happen to all people.
  3. happen to younger children but not to older adults.
  4. are common to people of a particular generation.
  5. influence the cultural makeup of a population.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 5

 

  1. Keith has won the lottery and now has more money than he ever dreamed of having. This incident will likely affect Keith’s development and is an example of a:
  2. normative history-graded influence.
  3. nonnormative life event.
  4. nonnormative history-graded influence.
  5. normative age-graded influence.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 5

 

  1. Agatha is 83 years old. According to Baltes and his colleagues, _____ and _____ in her capacities will take center stage.
  2. growth; maintenance
  3. maintenance; regulation of loss
  4. regulation of loss; augmentation
  5. growth; regulation of loss

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 5-6

 

  1. _____ encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.
  2. Culture
  3. Genotype
  4. Social policy
  5. Ethnocentricity

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 7

 

  1. Dr. Wilman is researching the place women occupy in families in Japan and the U.S. Dr. Wilman is conducting a(n) _____ study.
  2. longitudinal
  3. ethnocentric
  4. cross-cultural
  5. decentralized

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 7

 

  1. Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to:
  2. the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.
  3. a person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
  4. the degree to which development is similar or universal across cultures.
  5. a social label placed on a similar group of people based on their heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 8

 

  1. _____ is(are) a national government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
  2. Social policy
  3. Generational policy
  4. Cultural legislation
  5. Socialized equity programs

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 8

 

  1. Going by current trends, 86-year-old Matilda is likely to be living:
  2. with a spouse.
  3. with children.
  4. by herself.
  5. with grandchildren.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 9

 

  1. Compared with earlier decades, U.S. adults today are:
  2. more likely to be married.
  3. more likely to be childless.
  4. less likely to be living alone.
  5. less likely to need social relationships and support.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 9

 

  1. Two concepts that help provide a framework for describing and understanding an individual’s development are:
  2. developmental attributes and behavior.
  3. developmental characteristics and traits.
  4. developmental challenges and opportunities.
  5. developmental processes and periods.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 9

 

  1. Changes in motor skills, nutrition, exercise, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline are all examples of _____ processes that affect development.
  2. cognitive
  3. biological
  4. socioemotional
  5. cultural

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 10

 

  1. _____ processes refer to changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.
  2. Cognitive
  3. Biological
  4. Socioemotional
  5. Cultural

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 10

 

  1. _____ processes involve changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.
  2. Cognitive
  3. Biological
  4. Socioemotional
  5. Polycentric

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 10

 

  1. The connection across biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes is most obvious in the two rapidly emerging fields of:
  2. developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.
  3. developmental biological neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.
  4. developmental socioemotional pharmacology, developmental biological pharmacology.
  5. developmental cognitive biology and developmental cognitive biology.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 10

 

  1. The developmental period, when one is an infant, adolescent, or middle-aged person, refers to:
  2. a historical circumstance common to people of a particular generation.
  3. a time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features.
  4. a time frame in which a person experiences maximum change.
  5. a time frame in a nation’s history that is characterized by rapid development.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 10

 

  1. The _____ period is the time from conception to birth.
  2. perinatal
  3. prenatal
  4. neonatal
  5. postnatal

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Jonathan is almost completely dependent on his parents for his wants and needs and is only just beginning to acquire language skills and sensorimotor coordination. Which of the following development periods is Jonathan in?
  2. Late childhood
  3. Middle childhood
  4. Early childhood
  5. Infancy

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Mary is three years-old, and in preschool. Identify the development period that Mary is currently in.
  2. Infancy
  3. Early childhood
  4. Middle childhood
  5. Late childhood

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Joey has shot up in height over the past year, has developed a deeper voice, and is starting to grow facial hair. He is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Which of the following periods of development is Joey in?
  2. Middle childhood
  3. Adolescence
  4. Early adulthood
  5. Late childhood

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Brittany is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Her thoughts are more logical, abstract, and idealistic. She is also experiencing rapid physical changes such as gains in height and weight. Which of the following periods of development is Brittany most likely in?
  2. Middle childhood
  3. Late adulthood
  4. Late childhood
  5. Adolescence

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. _____ is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and, for many, selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.
  2. Early adulthood
  3. Late adolescence
  4. Middle adulthood
  5. Late adulthood

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Travis spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He is also wondering if he should move in with his girlfriend and about their long-term prospects. Travis is most likely in the _____ period of development.
  2. late adolescence
  3. early adulthood
  4. middle adulthood
  5. late adulthood

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Palma and her husband Frankie are in their mid-40’s. Which of the following developmental periods are their in?
  2. Central adulthood
  3. The nesting years
  4. Middle adulthood
  5. Mate adulthood

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Peter is a senior partner at his law firm and is an important member of his church and community. Both his children are in college. Peter’s situation is most representative of which period of development?
  2. Early adulthood
  3. Middle adulthood
  4. Late adulthood
  5. Retirement

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Late adulthood is a time of:
  2. life review, adjustment to new social roles, and diminishing strength and health.
  3. expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility.
  4. establishing personal and economic independence and advancing in a career.
  5. selecting a mate, learning to live with that person in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Jessica spends a lot of time thinking about the choices she has made in her life and the events she has witnessed. She is adjusting to decreasing strength and health, and she has made several lifestyle changes as a result. Jessica is most likely in the _____ period of development.
  2. adolescence
  3. early adulthood
  4. middle adulthood
  5. late adulthood

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. _____ has the longest span of any period of development and the number of people in this age group has been increasing dramatically.
  2. Middle and late childhood
  3. Adolescence
  4. Middle adulthood
  5. Late adulthood

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Katie-Lou is 88 years old. Katie would most likely be characterized as:
  2. young-old.
  3. old-old.
  4. oldest-old.
  5. late-old.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the “young-old” is true?
  2. They are people between 60 and 65 years of age.
  3. They have little potential for physical and cognitive fitness.
  4. They show considerable loss in cognitive skills.
  5. They can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 11

 

  1. Determining _____ age involves knowing the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs.
  2. social
  3. chronological
  4. biological
  5. psychological

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 12

 

  1. Sixty-year-old Betty is in great physical shape. Her bones are strong with no sign of osteoporosis, and her internal organs are in near perfect condition. This means that Betty is young in terms of her _____ age.
  2. social
  3. chronological
  4. psychological
  5. biological

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 12

 

  1. The younger the person’s _____ age, the longer the person is expected to live, regardless of chronological age.
  2. biological
  3. mental
  4. social
  5. psychological

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 12

 

  1. Ramada, 69, an avid golfer and fitness enthusiast, recently got a comprehensive health exam done, and her physician remarked that her vital organs were in such good shape that her _____ age was about 10 years less than her chronological age.
  2. social
  3. mental
  4. biological
  5. psychological

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 12

 

  1. _____ age is an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.
  2. Social
  3. Psychological
  4. Physical
  5. Biological

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 12

 

  1. In predicting an adult woman’s behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a 3-year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old. This reflects the concept of:
  2. chronological age.
  3. social age.
  4. psychological age.
  5. biological age.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 12

 

  1. The 35-year-old grandmother, the 65-year-old father of a preschooler, the 15-year old surgeon, and the 70-year-old student, all serve to illustrate that:
  2. old assumptions about the proper timing of life events no longer govern our lives.
  3. developmental age is becoming increasingly irrelevant.
  4. chronological age is becoming a more accurate predictor of life events in our society.
  5. biological age is becoming increasingly relevant.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 12

 

  1. In the nature-nurture issue, nature refers to an organism’s _____, nurture to its _____.
  2. personality traits ; abilities.
  3. attributes; ecological heritage.
  4. biological inheritance; environmental experiences.
  5. acquired traits, heredity.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 13

 

  1. The _____ issue involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or alter.
  2. growth-decline
  3. stability-change
  4. traits-characteristics
  5. permanence-evanescence

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 14

 

  1. Gina’s therapist attributes her delinquent behavior to heredity and to the gross neglect she suffered as a baby at the hands of her alcoholic mother. Gina’s therapist appears to be emphasizing the _____ aspect of her development.
  2. personality
  3. life-long learning
  4. discontinuity
  5. stability

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 14

 

  1. In the continuity-discontinuity issue in development, continuity refers to _____, while discontinuity implies:
  2. abrupt change; stability.
  3. gradual change; distinct stages.
  4. qualitative change; quantitative change.
  5. discrete stages; gradations.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 14

 

  1. The concept of discontinuity is characterized by:
  2. qualitative change.
  3. quantitative change.
  4. collective change.
  5. measured change.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 14

 

  1. Dr. Drew is a scientist interested in the effects of music on cognitive development. Which of the following describes the sequence he should go through?
  2. Collect data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, analyze data, and draw conclusions.
  3. Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, collect data, analyze data, and draw conclusions.
  4. Collect data, analyze data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, and draw conclusions.
  5. Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, draw conclusions, collect data, and analyze data.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 15

 

  1. Dr. Perkins predicts that children who spend years playing a musical instrument are smarter than children that do not play music. This testable prediction is known as a(n) _____.
  2. hypotheses
  3. classifications
  4. variables
  5. axioms

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 15

 

  1. _____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.
  2. Behavioral
  3. Social-cognitive
  4. Evolutionary
  5. Psychoanalytic

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 15

 

  1. Dr. Berenstein holds the view that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind. Dr. Berenstein can be described as a(n):
  2. psychoanalytic theorist.
  3. evolutionary theorist.
  4. cognitive theorist.
  5. behavioral theorist.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 15

 

  1. Identify the correct sequence of the five stages of psychosexual development described in Freud’s theory of development.
  2. Genital, oral, anal, phallic, and latency
  3. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
  4. Anal, genital, oral, phallic, and latency
  5. Oral, phallic, anal, latency, and genital

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 16

 

  1. According to Freud, our adult personality is determined by:
  2. the way we resolve conflicts between home life and professional life.
  3. the resolution of adult realities versus childhood fantasies.
  4. the way we maintain a balance between family and friends.
  5. the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 16

 

  1. Most contemporary psychoanalytic theorists believe that Sigmund Freud:
  2. proposed a theory that has stood the test of time and needs no revisions.
  3. overemphasized sexual instincts.
  4. overemphasized cultural experiences as determinants of an individual’s development.
  5. underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining development.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 16

 

  1. The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the _____ theory of development.
  2. psychobiological
  3. psychogenic
  4. psychosocial
  5. psychoanatomical

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 16

 

  1. One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:
  2. Freud underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining the life-span development of an individual.
  3. Erikson believed that development lasted only until the age of 20.
  4. Erikson emphasized the importance of both early and later experiences.
  5. Erik Erikson overemphasized the role of sexuality in the life-span development of an individual.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 16

 

  1. As defined by Erik Erikson, a crisis:
  2. will leave permanent psychological scars.
  3. will leave psychological scars that will eventually fade over time.
  4. will have a catastrophic impact on a person’s development, and will leave a psychological scar that will fade over time.
  5. is not a catastrophe but a turning point of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 16

 

  1. The first stage in Erickson’s theory is:
  2. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
  3. initiative versus guilt.
  4. generativity versus stagnation.
  5. trust versus mistrust.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 16

 

  1. Kelly responds to her infant son’s needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired she puts him down for a nap, and when he is hungry she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to develop a sense of:
  2. autonomy.
  3. initiative.
  4. trust.
  5. integrity.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 16

 

  1. Two-year old Julia is learning to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is “no.” This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson’s life-span stage of:
  2. initiative versus guilt.
  3. intimacy versus isolation.
  4. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
  5. trust versus mistrust.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 16

 

  1. McKenzie, age 2, wants to do everything on her own. Her mother punishes her when she attempts to pour her own milk or tries to answer the phone. Erikson would say that McKenzie is likely to develop a sense of:
  2. initiative.
  3. autonomy.
  4. stagnation.
  5. shame and doubt.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 16

 

  1. Johnny is attempting to resolve the crisis of initiative vs. guilt. According to Erik Erikson, he is most likely in _____.
  2. preschool
  3. elementary school
  4. junior high school
  5. high school

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 17

 

  1. Erik Erikson’s developmental theory consists of _____ stages that last from the first year of life to:
  2. seven; early adulthood.
  3. eight; late adulthood.
  4. six; adolescence.
  5. nine; death.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 16-17

 

  1. Edwin was a neglected child in his infancy. Now, at 31 years of age, he is highly cynical about the world and feels that no one can be relied upon. Whenever he is in a relationship with a woman, he has tremendous feelings of suspicion toward his partner, and these feelings eventually lead to the breakup of the relationship. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, this is a good indication that Edwin did not successfully resolve the _____ stage of development, which in turn is causing him to experience _____ in his current developmental stage.
  2. identity versus identity confusion ; stagnation
  3. trust versus mistrust; isolation
  4. autonomy versus shame and doubt; confusion
  5. trust versus mistrust; despair

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 16-17

 

  1. The elementary school years where children need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills is when Erikson’s stage of _____ takes place.
  2. intimacy versus isolation
  3. integrity versus despair
  4. autonomy versus shame and doubt
  5. industry versus inferiority

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 17

 

  1. Jessica, 16, is in the process of deciding what she wants to study in college. She wants to be an engineer one day and a painter the next day. Erik Erikson would say Jessica is in the _____ stage of development.
  2. intimacy versus isolation
  3. identity versus identity confusion
  4. initiative versus guilt
  5. industry versus inferiority

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 17

 

  1. During early adulthood, Erik Erikson’s developmental stage of _____ occurs.
  2. intimacy versus isolation
  3. integrity versus despair
  4. initiative versus guilt
  5. industry versus inferiority

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 17

 

  1. Caitlin, age 25, has a good job as a financial analyst but she has few friends and has had no success in dating. She admits that being close to others is a problem for her. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, Caitlin is at a risk of reaching the state of:
  2. stagnation.
  3. guilt.
  4. isolation.
  5. shame and doubt.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 17

 

  1. The term “generativity” as described in Erikson’s seventh stage of development primarily reflects a concern for:
  2. helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives.
  3. forming healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another.
  4. developing healthy ego boundaries.
  5. feeling secure in one’s job.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 17

 

  1. The final stage of Erik Erikson’s developmental theory is:
  2. generativity versus stagnation.
  3. trust versus mistrust.
  4. integrity versus despair.
  5. intimacy versus isolation.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 17

 

  1. Roger looks back on his life and feels that he failed to reach his potential, squandered opportunities, and hurt a lot of people. At 82 years of age, he knows it is too late to make amends. Roger is slipping into:
  2. stagnation.
  3. identity confusion.
  4. despair.
  5. mistrust.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 17

 

  1. Dr. Wong is a cognitive developmental theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of _____ in understanding development.
  2. conscious thoughts
  3. repressed memories
  4. biological processes
  5. the effects of genes and evolution on the development of intelligence

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 17

 

  1. According to Piaget’s theory, two processes underlie children’s cognitive construction of the world:
  2. assimilation and generalization.
  3. adaptation and abstraction.
  4. association and abstraction.
  5. organization and adaptation.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 18

 

  1. Amir is 18 months old. According to Piaget, he is in which of the following stages of cognitive development?
  2. Preoperational
  3. Sensorimotor
  4. Formal operational
  5. Concrete operational

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 18

 

  1. Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development:
  2. start at conception and continue until adulthood.
  3. start at birth and end at death.
  4. span from conception to death.
  5. start at birth and continue through adulthood.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 18-19

 

  1. Lynne, 5, loves to draw and color. She represents the world with words and her drawings. According to Piaget’s cognitive development theory, Lynne is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.
  2. preoperational
  3. sensorimotor
  4. formal operational
  5. concrete operational

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 18-19

 

  1. Hidalgo, 8, is very good at addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the complex algebraic problems that his 14-year old sister does. Hidalgo is currently in which of Jean Piaget’s stages of development?
  2. Preoperational
  3. Concrete operational
  4. Formal operational
  5. Conceptual operational

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 19

 

  1. Sandrine is now able to use abstract thought as well as logic; Piaget would argue that she is in the _____ stage of development.
  2. preoperational
  3. concrete operational
  4. formal operational
  5. conceptual operational

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 19

 

  1. Vygotsky’s theory emphasizes how _____ guide(s) cognitive development.
  2. culture and social interaction
  3. biology
  4. the unconscious mind
  5. genes

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 19

 

  1. Dr. Alondro is an information-processing psychologist, thus he is most likely to:
  2. emphasize the influence of culture on development.
  3. emphasize that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it.
  4. state that individuals develop a gradually decreasing capacity for processing information.
  5. state that thinking does not constitute information processing.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 19

 

  1. Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize:
  2. unconscious motives.
  3. discontinuity in behavior.
  4. continuity in development.
  5. that development occurs in stage-like fashion.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 20

 

  1. Dr. Nasrin believes that associating behavior with consequence can shape the probability of a behavior occurring. He is arguing that _____ conditioning is important for behavioral modification.
  2. stimulus
  3. operant
  4. classical
  5. cognitive

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 20

 

  1. Nellie, 3, bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. How could Skinner’s concept of operant conditioning be applied to address this behavior?
  2. Explore experiences from Nellie’s early childhood and address them in therapy
  3. Test Nellie to determine her current level of cognitive functioning
  4. Investigate her psychosocial environment and eliminate stressors
  5. Reward Nellie when she does not bang her head and punish the head-banging behavior

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 20

 

  1. B.F. Skinner was a behaviorist; as such he would argue that the most important things that shape development are _____.
  2. thoughts and feelings
  3. unconscious motivations
  4. rewards and punishments
  5. culture and society

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 20

 

  1. Danny’s mother is even-tempered, fair, and tactful. Seeing this, Danny, too, is growing up to be a polite, good-natured boy. This imitation or modeling of behavior mirrors the concept of _____ in Bandura’s social cognitive theory.
  2. operant conditioning
  3. observational learning
  4. salient stimuli
  5. classical conditioning

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 20

 

  1. Bandura’s most recent model of learning and development includes three elements: behavior, environment, and:
  2. person/cognition.
  3. culture.
  4. education level.
  5. motivation.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 21

 

  1. Fernando believes that as individuals adapt to their environment, development, or phylogeny occurs. He further believes that there are critical periods that have also been selected for. He is most likely taking a(n) _____ approach.
  2. behavioral
  3. ethological
  4. social cognitive
  5. psychoanalytic

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 21

 

  1. A recent television documentary concluded that, from birth, girls are more nurturing than are boys. You agree with this because you believe nurturing is an evolutionary trait passed on through the generations, because females needed to be more nurturing to aid the survival of the species. Your view reflects the _____ perspective of development.
  2. ideological
  3. clinical
  4. ethological
  5. theological

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 21

 

  1. Konrad Lorenz performed research with goslings and found that many, upon hatching, identified him as their mother. He coined this form of attachment _____.
  2. conditioning
  3. imprinting
  4. internalizing
  5. acclimatizing

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 21

 

  1. In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This period of time is called the:
  2. receptive period.
  3. sensitive period.
  4. critical period.
  5. bonding period.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 22

 

  1. According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, a person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood constitute his/her:
  2. microsystem.
  3. mesosystem.
  4. chronosystem.
  5. macrosystem.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 22

 

  1. The _____ involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.
  2. metasystem
  3. mesosystem
  4. chronosystem
  5. macrosystem

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 22

 

  1. The _____ consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context.
  2. microsystem
  3. mesosystem
  4. exosystem
  5. macrosystem

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 22

 

  1. The _____ involves the culture in which individuals live.
  2. chronosystem
  3. mesosystem
  4. ethnosystem
  5. macrosystem

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 23

 

  1. Which of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances?
  2. Mesosystem
  3. Chronosystem
  4. Macrosystem
  5. Exosystem

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 23

 

  1. Flevy is conducting an extensive market study and has hired a big group of college students to hand out a standard set of questions to shoppers at malls and supermarkets and to seek their responses. Which of the following methods of data collection is Flevy using?
  2. Laboratory research
  3. Survey
  4. Naturalistic observation
  5. Physiological measures

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 25

 

  1. Cynthia is conducting a survey on the prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in her city. What could be a problem that Cynthia could encounter while using this method of data collection?
  2. The assumption that a person’s behavior is consistent and stable
  3. The inability to sample a large number of people
  4. That surveys have to be conducted only in person
  5. Some participants may not tell the truth and instead give socially acceptable answers

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 26

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests?
  2. They allow a person’s performance to be compared with that of other individuals.
  3. They assume a person’s behavior is consistent and stable.
  4. They provide information about individual differences among people.
  5. They are difficult to design.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 26

 

  1. In _____ research, the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics.
  2. descriptive
  3. correlational
  4. collaborative
  5. discrete

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 27

 

  1. Dr. Jackson’s research has found that the correlation between IQ and head circumference is +.10. From this information, we can conclude that:
  2. people with large heads have a higher IQ than people with smaller heads.
  3. there is a weak relationship between head size and IQ.
  4. people with small heads tend to have a higher IQ than people with large heads.
  5. head circumference is an important predictor of IQ.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 27

 

  1. Which of the following correlations is the strongest?
  2. –.65
  3. +.46
  4. + .70
  5. –.77

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 27

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
  2. case study
  3. survey
  4. experiment
  5. correlational

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 27-28

 

  1. A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for eight weeks. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is:
  2. the number of minutes on the treadmill.
  3. the exercise program (high versus low).
  4. the number of elderly patients.
  5. the eight-week duration of the exercise program.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 28

 

  1. In an experimental study, the _____ group serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared.
  2. control
  3. experimental
  4. dependent
  5. independent

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 28

 

  1. The cross-sectional approach to developmental research compares:
  2. various research methodologies.
  3. various developmental theories.
  4. individuals of different ages.
  5. individuals of different genders.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 29

 

  1. Dr. McLean has designed a study to test the cognitive skills of people in their 30s, 50s, and 70s where data is collected over the course of a day through a series of tests. What type of research approach is Dr. McLean using?
  2. Longitudinal
  3. Cohort
  4. Latitudinal
  5. Cross-sectional

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 29

 

  1. The longitudinal method of research consists of studying:
  2. the same individuals over a long period of time.
  3. individuals of different ages.
  4. individuals from around the globe.
  5. individuals born in the same year.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 29

 

  1. According to APA’s guidelines, all participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop. This guideline addresses which of the following issues?
  2. Deception
  3. Debriefing
  4. Informed consent
  5. Confidentiality

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 31

 

  1. According to APA’s guidelines, after the study has been completed, participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used. This is known as:
  2. debriefing.
  3. informed consent.
  4. confidentiality.
  5. deception.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 31

 

Identification Questions

 

  1. This refers to the capacity for change.

Answer: Plasticity

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 4

 

  1. This is a way of conceptualizing age where age is characterized by physical health and the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs.

Answer: Biological age

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 12

 

  1. The developmental issue or debate concerning whether development is influenced by biology or environment.

Answer: Nature-nurture issue

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 13

 

  1. Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion.

Answer: Psychoanalytic theories

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 15

 

  1. This theorist proposed that psychosexual development occurred in the five stages: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latent stage, and genital stage.

Answer: Sigmund Freud

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 15-16

 

  1. This theorist proposed eight psychosocial stages of development.

Answer: Erik Erikson

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 16

 

  1. Xavier believes that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured. He argues that affective and cognitive explanations are circular. Which theoretical orientation is most akin to his views?

Answer: Behavioral orientation

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 20

 

  1. This theorist developed the theory of operant conditioning.

Answer: B. F. Skinner

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 20

 

  1. Riley argues that behavior is strongly influenced by biology; it is tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods. What theoretical orientation, does Riley most likely take?

Answer: Ethology

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 21

 

  1. A method of gathering data by means of observing behaviors in real-world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation.

Answer: Naturalistic observation

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 25

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. In addition to chronological age, list and briefly describe the three other ways that “age” has been conceptualized.

Answer: Biological age is a person’s age in terms of biological health and is determined by knowing the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs. Psychological age refers to an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with others of the same chronological age. Social age refers to connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 12-13

 

  1. Define theory and hypothesis. Illustrate your answer with an example.

Answer: A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions. A hypothesis is a specific assumption and prediction that can be tested and determined for accuracy. Hypotheses are formulated in order to test the assumptions of a theory. Results from research based on these hypotheses may, in turn, be used to revise the theory.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 15

 

  1. List Freud’s psychosexual stages and explain how adult personality is determined as a result of these stages.

Answer: Freud believed that we go through five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. According to Freud, our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 15-16

 

  1. Briefly describe the ethological perspective. Provide an example that involves a critical period to bolster this perspective’s argument.

Answer: Ethology stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods. These are specific time frames during which, according to ethologists, the presence or absence of certain experiences has a long-lasting influence on individuals. Lorenz coined the term “imprinting” to describe the process of the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen. In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This point in time is called a critical period.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 21-22

 

  1. List and briefly describe Urie Bronfenbrenner’s five environmental systems.

Answer: Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory identifies five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. The microsystem is the setting in which an individual lives. The mesosystem involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts. The exosystem consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate environment. The macrosystem involves the culture in which individuals live. The chronosystem consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions as well as sociohistorical circumstances.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 22-23

 

  1. Explain eclectic theoretical orientation. What is the merit in using such an orientation?

Answer: An eclectic theoretical orientation is one which does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features. In this way, you can view the study of development as it actually exists—with different theorists making different assumptions, stressing different empirical problems, and using different strategies to discover information.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 23-24

 

  1. Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using surveys as a way to collect data.

Answer: Surveys can be used to study a wide range of topics and can collect data from a large number of people. Surveys can be conducted in person, over the telephone, or on the Internet. A disadvantage to survey research is that people sometimes respond in ways that they think is socially acceptable rather than saying what they honestly think and believe.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 25-26

 

  1. If, as a developmental researcher, you wished to study in-depth the life and mind of Ted Kaczynski—the notorious Unabomber—who is featured at the beginning of the text, which method of data collection would you adopt? Why?

Answer: A case study would best serve the purpose of studying Ted Kaczynski as the subject of research. A case study is an in-depth look at a single individual. It is performed mainly by mental health professionals when, for either practical or ethical reasons, the unique aspects of an individual’s life cannot be duplicated and tested in other individuals—as is the scenario for Ted Kaczynski. A case study provides information about the person’s experiences and allows the researcher to focus on any aspect of the subject’s life that helps him/her to understand the person’s mind, behavior, or other attributes.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 26

 

  1. Briefly explain the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment. Describe the relationship between them.

Answer: Experiments include two types of changeable factors, or variables: independent and dependent. An independent variable is a manipulated, influential, experimental factor. It is a potential cause. The label “independent” is used because this variable can be manipulated independently of other factors to determine its effect. An experiment may include one independent variable or several of them. A dependent variable is a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable. As researchers manipulate the independent variable, they measure the dependent variable for any resulting effect.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 28

 

  1. Compare and contrast the cross-sectional and longitudinal approach to research, listing the advantages and disadvantages of both.

Answer: The cross-sectional approach is a research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages. Data are usually collected over a short period of time. The longitudinal approach is a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more. In a cross-sectional study, the researcher does not have to wait for the individuals to grow up or become older. However, it gives no information about how individuals change or about the stability of their characteristics and can obscure the increases and decreases of development. Longitudinal studies address these concerns, but are expensive and time consuming and carry the risk of participants dropping out mid-way.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 29

essentials of lifespan development 3rd edition test bank