Essentials of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: Concepts of Care in Evidence-Based Practice 7th edition Townsend Test Bank

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  • Published: 2016
  • ISBN-13: 978-0803658608
  • ISBN-10: 0803658605

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essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing 7th edition test bank

Chapter 2: Biological Implications

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. A depressed client states, “I have a chemical imbalance in my brain. I have no control over my behavior. Medications are my only hope to feel normal again.” Which nursing response is appropriate?

1.“Medications only address biological factors. Environmental and interpersonal factors must also be considered.”
2.“Because biological factors are the sole cause of depression, medications will improve your mood.”
3.“Environmental factors have been shown to exert the most influence in the development of depression.”
4.“Researchers have been unable to demonstrate a link between nature (biology and genetics) and nurture (environment).”

____ 2. A client diagnosed with major depressive disorder asks, “What part of my brain controls my emotions?” Which nursing response is appropriate?

1.“The occipital lobe governs perceptions, judging them as positive or negative.”
2.“The parietal lobe has been linked to depression.”
3.“The medulla regulates key biological and psychological activities.”
4.“The limbic system is largely responsible for one’s emotional state.”

____ 3. Which part of the nervous system should a nurse identify as playing a major role during stressful situations?

1.Peripheral nervous system
2.Somatic nervous system
3.Sympathetic nervous system
4.Parasympathetic nervous system

____ 4. Which client statement reflects an understanding of circadian rhythms in psychopathology?

1.“When I dream about my mother’s horrible train accident, I become hysterical.”
2.“I get really irritable during my menstrual cycle.”
3.“I’m a morning person. I get my best work done before noon.”
4.“Every February, I tend to experience periods of sadness.”

____ 5. Which types of adoption studies should a nurse recognize as providing useful information for the psychiatric community?

1.Studies in which children with mentally ill biological parents are raised by adoptive parents who were mentally healthy
2.Studies in which children with mentally healthy biological parents are raised by adoptive parents who were mentally ill
3.Studies in which monozygotic twins from mentally ill parents were raised separately by different adoptive parents
4.Studies in which monozygotic twins were raised together by mentally ill biological parents
5.All of the above

____ 6. Six months after her husband and children were killed in a car accident, a client is diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. The nurse should recognize that this situation validates which study perspective?

1.Neuroendocrinology
2.Psychoneuroimmunology
3.Diagnostic technology
4.Neurophysiology

____ 7. A withdrawn client, diagnosed with schizophrenia, expresses little emotion and refuses to attend group therapy. What altered component of the nervous system should a nurse recognize as being responsible for this behavior?

1.Dendrites
2.Axons
3.Neurotransmitters
4.Synapses

____ 8. An instructor is teaching nursing students about neurotransmitters. Which best explains the process of how neurotransmitters released into the synaptic cleft may return to the presynaptic neuron?

1.Regeneration
2.Reuptake
3.Recycling
4.Retransmission

____ 9. A nurse concludes that a restless, agitated client is manifesting a fight-or-flight response. The nurse should associate this response with which neurotransmitter?

1.Acetylcholine
2.Dopamine
3.Serotonin
4.Norepinephrine

____ 10. A client is admitted to a psychiatric unit with the diagnosis of catatonic schizophrenia. Which of the client’s neurotransmitters should a nurse expect to be elevated?

1.Serotonin
2.Dopamine
3.Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
4.Histamine

____ 11. A client’s wife of 34 years dies unexpectedly. The client cries often and becomes socially isolated. The client’s therapist encourages open discussion of feelings, proper nutrition, and exercise. What is the best rationale for the therapist’s recommendations?

1.The therapist is using an interpersonal approach.
2.The client has an alteration in neurotransmitters.
3.It is routine practice to remind clients about nutrition, exercise, and rest.
4.The client is susceptible to illness because of effects of stress on the immune system.

____ 12. Which mental illness should a nurse identify as being associated with an increase in prolactin hormone level?

1.Major depressive episode
2.Schizophrenia
3.Anorexia nervosa
4.Alzheimer’s disease

____ 13. Which cerebral structure should a nursing instructor describe to students as the “emotional brain”?

1.The cerebellum
2.The limbic system
3.The cortex
4.The left temporal lobe

____ 14. A nurse understands that the abnormal secretion of growth hormone may play a role in which illness?

1.Acute mania
2.Schizophrenia
3.Anorexia nervosa
4.Alzheimer’s disease

____ 15. A client is admitted to an emergency department experiencing memory deficits and decreased motor function. What alteration in brain chemistry should a nurse correlate with the production of these symptoms?

1.Abnormal levels of serotonin
2.Decreased levels of dopamine
3.Increased levels of norepinephrine
4.Decreased levels of acetylcholine

____ 16. A nurse should recognize that a decrease in norepinephrine levels would play a significant role in which mental illness?

1.Bipolar disorder: mania
2.Schizophrenia spectrum disorder
3.Generalized anxiety disorder
4.Major depressive episode

____ 17. A nurse should expect that an increase in dopamine activity might play a significant role in the development of which mental illness?

1.Schizophrenia spectrum disorder
2.Major depressive disorder
3.Body dysmorphic disorder
4.Parkinson’s disease

Multiple Response

Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.

____ 18. Which of the following information should a nurse include when explaining causes of anorexia nervosa to a client? (Select all that apply.)

1.There is a possible correlation between abnormal secretion of growth hormone and anorexia nervosa.
2.There is a possible correlation between antidiuretic hormone levels and anorexia nervosa.
3.There is a possible correlation between low levels of gonadotropin and anorexia nervosa.
4.There is a possible correlation between increased levels of prolactin and anorexia nervosa.
5.There is a possible correlation between altered levels of oxytocin and anorexia nervosa.

____ 19. Which of the following symptoms should a nurse associate with the development of decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a newly admitted client? (Select all that apply.)

1.Depression
2.Fatigue
3.Increased libido
4.Mania
5.Hyperexcitability

Completion

Complete each statement.

20.____________________________ is the study of the biological foundations of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes.

Chapter 2: Biological Implications

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.ANS:1

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Recognize various theorized influences in the development of psychiatric disorders including brain physiology, genetics, endocrine function, immune system, and psychosocial, and environmental factors.

Page: 15–19

Headings: The Parietal Lobes, The Occipital Lobes, Limbic System, Medulla

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level: Analysis [Analyzing]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Easy

Feedback
1The nurse should advise the client that medications address biological factors, but there are other factors that affect mood. The nurse should educate the client on environmental and interpersonal factors that can lead to depression.
2The statement is false because biological factors are not the sole cause of depression.
3It is false that environmental factors have been shown to exert the most influence in the development of depression.
4Researchers have demonstrated a link between nature and nurture.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

2.ANS:4

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Identify gross anatomical structures of the brain and describe their functions.

Page: 16

Headings: The Nervous System: An Anatomical Review > The Brain

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1The occipital lobes are the area of visual reception and interpretation.
2Somatosensory input (touch, taste, temperature, etc.) occurs in the parietal lobes.
3The medulla contains vital centers that regulate heart rate and reflexes.
4The nurse should explain to the client that the limbic system is largely responsible for one’s emotional state. This system is often called the “emotional brain” and is associated with feelings, sexuality, and social behavior.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

3.ANS:3

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the physiology of neurotransmission in the central nervous system.

Page: 21

Heading: Autonomic Nervous System

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1The peripheral nervous system does not play a major role during stressful situations.
2The somatic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system.
3The nurse should identify that the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role during stressful situations. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for the fight-or-flight response.
4The parasympathetic nervous system is dominant when an individual is in a nonstressful state.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

4.ANS:3

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the physiology of neurotransmission in the central nervous system.

Page: 29–30

Heading: Circadian Rhythms

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Analysis [Analyzing]

Concept: Sleep and Rest

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1This statement does not indicate understanding of circadian rhythms.
2The menstrual cycle is not affected by the circadian rhythm.
3By stating, “I am a morning person,” the client demonstrates an understanding that circadian rhythms may influence a variety of regulatory functions, including the sleep-wake cycle, regulation of body temperature, and patterns of activity. Most humans follow a 24-hour cycle that is largely affected by lightness and darkness.
4Experiencing periods of sadness is not indicative of the circadian rhythm.

PTS:1CON:Sleep and Rest

5.ANS:5

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the implications of psychobiological concepts to the practice of psychiatric/mental health nursing.

Page: 31

Heading: Genetics > Adoptions Studies

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Concept: Evidence-based Practice

Cognitive Level: Analysis [Analyzing]

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1This type of adoption study can provide information on children with mentally ill biological parents who are raised by adoptive parents who are mentally healthy parents.
2This type of adoption study can provide information on children with mentally healthy biological parents who are raised by adoptive parents who are mentally ill.
3This type of adoption study provides important information on monozygotic twins from mentally ill parents who were raised separately by different adoptive parents.
4This type of adoption study provides important information on monozygotic twins who were raised together by mentally ill biological parents.
5The nurse should determine that all of the studies could possibly benefit the psychiatric community. The studies may reveal research findings relating genetic links to mental illness. Adoption studies allow comparisons to be made of the influences of the environment versus genetics.

PTS: 1 CON: Evidence-based Practice

6.ANS:2

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the influence of psychological factors on the immune system.

Page: 31

Heading: Psychoneuroimmunology > Implications of the Immune System in Psychiatric Illness

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Stress

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
2Psychoneuroimmunology is the branch of medicine that studies the effects of social and psychological factors on the functioning of the immune system. Studies of the biological response to stress hypothesize that individuals become more susceptible to physical illness following exposure to stressful stimuli.
3Diagnostic testing assists in diagnosing.
4Neurophysiology is the physiology of the nervous system.

PTS: 1 CON: Stress

7.ANS:3

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Describe the role of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.

Page: 21

Heading: The Nervous System: An Anatomical Review > Neurotransmitters

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1Dendrites are processes that transmit impulses toward the cell body.
2Axons transmit impulses away from the cell body. A junction between two neurons is a synapse.
3The nurse should recognize that neurotransmitters play an essential function in the role of human emotion and behavior. Neurotransmitters are targeted and affected by many psychotropic medications.
4A junction between two neurons is a synapse.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

8.ANS:2

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Describe the role of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.

Page: 21

Heading: The Nervous System: An Anatomical Review > Neurotransmitters

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1Regeneration is incorrect wording to describe this process.
2The nursing instructor should explain that the process by which neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft and returned to the presynaptic neuron is termed reuptake. Reuptake is the process by which neurotransmitters are stored for reuse.
3Recycling is incorrect wording to describe this process.
4Retransmission is incorrect wording to describe this process.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

9.ANS:4

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Describe the role of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.

Page: 21

Heading: Monoamines > Norepinephrine

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1Acetylcholine functions include pain, arousal, and pain perception.
2Dopamine functions include regulation of movement and coordination.
3Serotonin plays a role in sleep, libido, and appetite.
4The nurse should associate the neurotransmitter norepinephrine with the fight-or-flight response. Norepinephrine produces activity in the sympathetic postsynaptic nerve terminal and is associated with the regulation of mood, cognition, perception, locomotion, and sleep and arousal.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

10.ANS:2

Chapter: Chapter 2: Biological Implications

Objective: Describe the role of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.

Page: 21

Heading: Monoamines > Norepinephrine

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1Serotonin plays a role in sleep, libido, and appetite.
2The nurse should expect that elevated dopamine levels might be an attributing factor to the client’s current level of functioning. Dopamine functions include regulation of movements and coordination, emotions, and voluntary decision-making ability.
3GABA prevents postsynaptic excitation.
4Histamine mediates allergic and inflammatory reactions.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

11.ANS:4

Chapter: Chapter 2: Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the influence of psychological factors on the immune system.

Page: 31

Heading: Psychoneuroimmunology > Implications of the Immune System in Psychiatric Illness

Integrated Processes: Planning

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Stress

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1This approach is not proven by evidence-based research.
2This rationale is not proven by evidence-based research.
3Reminding clients about nutrition, exercise and rest is routine but is not proven by evidence-based research.
4The therapist’s recommendations should be based on the knowledge that the client has been exposed to stressful stimuli and is at an increased risk to develop illness because of the effects of stress on the immune system. The study of this branch of medicine is called psychoneuroimmunology.

PTS: 1 CON: Stress

12.ANS:2

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Recognize various theorized influences in the development of psychiatric disorders including brain physiology, genetics, endocrine function, immune system, and psychosocial, and environmental factors.

Page: 29

Heading: Psychoneuroimmunology > Prolactin

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Stress

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1There is no known correlation between increased levels of prolactin and major depressive disorder.
2Although the exact mechanism is unknown, there may be some correlation between increased levels of the hormone prolactin and schizophrenia.
3There is no known correlation between increased levels of prolactin and anorexia nervosa.
4There is no known correlation between increased levels of prolactin and Alzheimer’s disease.

PTS: 1 CON: Stress

13.ANS:2

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Identify gross anatomical structures of the brain and describe their functions.

Page: 19

Heading: The Nervous System: An Anatomical Review > Limbic System

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Easy

Feedback
1The cerebellum is concerned with involuntary movement, posture, and equilibrium.
2The limbic system is often referred to as the “emotional brain.” The limbic system is largely responsible for one’s emotional state and is associated with feelings, sexuality, and social behavior.
3The cortex is identified by numerous folds called gyri and sulci.
4The left temporal lobe is concerned with auditory functions.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

14.ANS:3

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the association of endocrine functioning to the development of psychiatric disorders.

Page: 31

Heading: Psychoneuroimmunology > Growth Hormone

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1There is no correlation between abnormal levels of growth hormone and acute mania.
2There is no correlation between abnormal levels of growth hormone and schizophrenia.
3The nurse should understand that research has found a correlation between abnormal levels of growth hormone and anorexia nervosa. The growth hormone is responsible for growth in children, as well as continued protein synthesis throughout life.
4There is no correlation between abnormal levels of growth hormone and Alzheimer’s Disease.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

15.ANS:4

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Describe the role of neurotransmitters in human behavior.

Page: 31

Heading: Psychoneuroimmunology > Acetylcholine

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1Abnormal levels of serotonin do not cause memory deficits and decreased motor functions.
2Abnormal levels of dopamine do not cause memory deficits and decreased motor functions.
3Abnormal levels of norepinephrine do not cause memory deficits and decreased motor functions.
4The nurse should correlate memory deficits and decreased motor function with decreased levels of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a major chemical effector of the autonomic nervous system. Functions of acetylcholine include sleep regulation, pain perception, the modulation and coordination of movement, and memory.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

16.ANS:4

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the physiology of neurotransmitters in human behavior.

Page: 21

Heading: Monoamines > Norepinephrine

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1A decrease in norepinephrine would not lead to mania.
2A decrease in norepinephrine would not lead to schizophrenia.
3A decrease in norepinephrine would not lead to generalized anxiety disorder.
4The nurse should recognize that a decrease in norepinephrine level would play a significant role in the development of major depressive disorder. The functions of norepinephrine include the regulation of mood, cognition, perception, locomotion, cardiovascular functioning, and sleep and arousal.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

17.ANS:1

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the physiology of neurotransmitters in human behavior.

Page: 21, 24

Heading: Psychoneuroimmunology > Dopamine

Integrated Processes: Nursing Process

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1The nurse should expect that an increase in dopamine activity might play a significant role in the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Functions of dopamine include regulation of emotions, coordination, and voluntary decision-making ability. Increased dopamine activity is also associated with mania.
2Increased dopamine activity is not associated with major depressive disorder.
3Increased dopamine activity is not associated with body dysmorphic disorder.
4Increased dopamine activity is not associated with Parkinson’s disease.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

18.ANS:1, 3

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the association of endocrine functioning to the development of psychiatric disorders.

Page: 29

Headings: Growth Hormone > Gonadotropic Hormones

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1.The nurse should explain to the client that there is a possible correlation between anorexia nervosa and decreased levels of growth hormones.
2.There is no correlation between anorexia nervosa and antidiuretic hormone levels.
3.Research shows that there is possible correlation between low levels of gonadotropin and anorexia nervosa.
4.There is no correlation between anorexia nervosa and increased prolactin levels.
5.There is no correlation between anorexia nervosa and altered levels of oxytocin.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

19.ANS:1, 2

Chapter: Chapter 2, Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the association of endocrine functioning to the development of psychiatric disorders.

Page: 28

Heading: Neuroendocrinology > The Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback
1.The nurse should associate depression with decreased levels of TSH.
2.The nurse should associate fatigue with decreased levels of TSH.
3.Decreased libido is associated with decreased levels of TSH.
4.Mania is not associated with decreased levels of TSH.
5.Hyperexcitability is not associated with decreased levels of TSH.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

COMPLETION

20.ANS:

Psychobiology

Chapter: Chapter 2 Biological Implications

Objective: Discuss the implications of psychobiological concepts to the practice of psychiatric/mental health nursing.

Page: 15

Heading: Introduction

Integrated Processes: Teaching and Learning

Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Cognitive Level: Application [Applying]

Concept: Mood

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback: Psychobiology is the study of the biological foundations of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes. In recent years, a greater emphasis has been placed on the study of the organic basis for psychiatric illness.

PTS: 1 CON: Mood

essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing 7th edition test bank

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