Essentials of Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach 10th edition Henslin Test Bank

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  • Published: 2013
  • ISBN-10: 0205898475
  • ISBN-13: 978-0205898473

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essentials of sociology 10th edition henslin test bank

Chapter 1    The Sociological Perspective

1.1    True/False Questions

1) The corners of life that people occupy, such as jobs, income, education, gender, age, and race, are referred to as the social imperative.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Knowledge

2) Because sociology is based on common sense, it is an excellent discipline for students to study who approach the world in a rational, matter-of-fact way.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 5

Skill: Application

3) Sociologists often use “common sense” to understand they way the world “is.”

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1   Page Ref: 5

Skill: Knowledge

 

4) Applying the scientific method to the social world is called empiricism.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

5) Herbert Spencer believed the most capable and intelligent members of a society would survive while the weak and less capable would die, thus improving society, in a master plan he called “the survival of the fittest.”

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Comprehension

6) Karl Marx thought of himself as a classical sociologist, a label that greatly influenced his theories on class conflict.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 6-7

Skill: Knowledge

7) Emile Durkheim identified the degree of social integration as the primary variable to explain different rates of suicide within different European nations.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 7-8

Skill: Knowledge

8) According to Max Weber, the “sign” Calvinists looked for as an indication they were saved was their successful investment in capital.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 8-9

Skill: Knowledge

 

9.) Frances Perkins, a sociologist, won the Nobel Prize for her work with the homeless in Hull-House.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 9

Skill: Knowledge

10) Despite her acclaimed research on social life, until recently Harriet Martineau was best known for translating Comte’s works on sociology into English.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 9

Skill: Knowledge

11) Booker T. Washington was the first African American to earn a doctorate degree from Harvard University.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 10

Skill: Knowledge

12) C. Wright Mills urged American sociologists to concentrate on social reform, developing the concept of the power elite to illustrate how top leaders of business, politics, and the military were an imminent threat to American freedom.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 12-13

Skill: Comprehension

13) Sociologists have always agreed that the most important goal of sociology is to generate social change.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 13

Skill: Knowledge

14) According to the principles of symbolic interactionism, symbols not only allow relationships to exist, they also allow society to exist.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 16

Skill: Comprehension

15) Sociologists who use the functionalist perspective stress how industrialization and urbanization have undermined the traditional functions of the family.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 18

Skill: Comprehension

16) Sociologist Lewis Coser pointed out that conflict is most likely to develop among people who are in close relationships.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 20

Skill: Knowledge

17) Scientific research follows eight basic steps.

 

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1   Page Ref: 23

Skill: Knowledge

 

 

18) Sociology places no importance on ethics and values during research.

 

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1   Page Ref: 33

Skill: Knowledge

 

19) Because of their training and expertise, sociologists often stress their personal values in their research.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 35

Skill: Knowledge

 

1.2    Multiple Choice Questions

1) The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ________.

  1. A) the sociological perspective (or imagination)
  2. B) social location
  3. C) social integration
  4. D) the social imperative

Answer:  A

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Knowledge

2) Which of the following elements did C. Wright Mills attribute as being the one that sociologists would use to explain individual behavior?

  1. A) common sense
  2. B) instinct
  3. C) external influence
  4. D) inherited ability

Answer:  C

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Knowledge

3) When sociologists’ group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine ________.

  1. A) social network
  2. B) social location
  3. C) social personality
  4. D) social skills

Answer:  B

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Application

4) The sociological perspective emphasizes how the social context influences people’s lives, particularly how people are influenced by ________.

  1. A) random chance events
  2. B) geographical location
  3. C) inherited genetic structure
  4. D) society

Answer:  D

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Knowledge

 

5)   The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was ________.

  1. A) Talcott Parsons
  2. B) Herbert Spencer
  3. C) Wright Mills
  4. D) Emile Durkheim

Answer:  C

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Knowledge

6) What is the use of objective and systematic observation to test theories, one that is often employed by sociologists?

  1. A) the commutation process
  2. B) common sense
  3. C) the scientific method
  4. D) research analysis

Answer:  C

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 5

Skill: Knowledge

7) The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ________.

  1. A) Emile Durkheim
  2. B) Max Weber
  3. C) Karl Marx
  4. D) Auguste Comte

Answer:  D

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

8) What was the social event that most influenced Auguste Comte to explore patterns within society and become interested in what holds society together?

  1. A) the discovery of the New World
  2. B) the Spanish Inquisition
  3. C) the Russian Revolution
  4. D) the French Revolution

Answer:  D

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

9) The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as ________.

  1. A) social Darwinism
  2. B) positivism
  3. C) post-modernism
  4. D) social welfare

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

 

10) The term “survival of the fittest,” which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by ________.

  1. A) Charles Darwin
  2. B) Talcott Parsons
  3. C) Auguste Comte
  4. D) Herbert Spencer

Answer:  D

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

11) The theorist who is sometimes referred to as “the second founder of sociology” was ________.

  1. A) Henri Saint Simon
  2. B) Herbert Spencer
  3. C) Emile Durkheim
  4. D) Karl Marx

Answer:  B

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

12) Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is ________.

  1. A) class conflict
  2. B) religion
  3. C) family
  4. D) education

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

13) The Wall Street Journal has declared that the three greatest modern thinkers were ________, ________, and ________.

  1. A) Karl Marx; Sigmund Freud; Albert Einstein
  2. B) Max Weber; B. F. Skinner; J. Edgar Hoover
  3. C) Karl Marx; Louis Pasteur; Albert Einstein
  4. D) Frank Lloyd Wright; Jonas Salk; Sigmund Freud

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

14) The social thinker of the 19th century who predicted that there would be a classless society once the working class united and began a revolution was ________.

  1. A) Emile Durkheim
  2. B) Wright Mills
  3. C) Herbert Spencer
  4. D) Karl Marx

Answer:  D

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 6-7

Skill: Knowledge

15) The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ________ and the ________.

  1. A) nobles; peasants
  2. B) bourgeoisie; proletariat
  3. C) upper class; lower class
  4. D) civilized; barbarians

Answer:  B

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 6-7

Skill: Knowledge

16) The French sociologist Emile Durkheim is most identified with which of the following areas of study?

  1. A) social integration
  2. B) class conflict
  3. C) social Darwinism
  4. D) the spirit of capitalism

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 7

Skill: Knowledge

17) Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life characterized by people living frugal lives and saving their money as the ________.

  1. A) spirit of capitalism
  2. B) socialist conscience
  3. C) Protestant ethic
  4. D) manifest function

Answer:  C

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 8-9

Skill: Knowledge

18) Karl Marx believed that ________ was the central force for social change, while Max Weber believed that ________ was the force most responsible for social change.

  1. A) economics; religion
  2. B) education; political stability
  3. C) government; economics
  4. D) religion; education

Answer:  A

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 8

Skill: Application

19) According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in the birth of ________.

  1. A) capitalism
  2. B) democracy
  3. C) socialism
  4. D) bureaucracy

Answer:  A

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 9

Skill: Comprehension

20) What distinction did sociologist Frances Perkins hold in American history?

  1. A) She was the first woman president of the American Sociological Association.
  2. B) She won a Nobel Prize for her work with poor women.
  3. C) She was the first woman elected governor.
  4. D) She was the first woman to hold a presidential cabinet position.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 9

Knowledge

21) The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, who spent his lifetime studying race relations in America and was one of the founders of the NAACP, was ________.

  1. A) E. B. Du Bois
  2. B) Booker T. Washington
  3. C) George Washington Carver
  4. D) Benjamin Quarles

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 10-11

Skill: Knowledge

22) The American sociologist who focused on social analysis, developing abstract models showing how parts of society harmoniously work together, was ________.

  1. A) Talcott Parsons
  2. B) Ernest Burgess
  3. C) Robert E. Park
  4. D) I. Thomas

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 12

Skill: Knowledge

23) Because of her outstanding contributions to social reform, as demonstrated in her work as co-founder of Hull-House, ________ was a co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1931.

  1. A) Marion Talbot
  2. B) Charlotte Perkins Gilman
  3. C) Alice Paul
  4. D) Jane Addams

Answer:  D

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 12

Skill: Knowledge

24) The sociologist who developed the concept of the power elite was ________.

  1. A) Wright Mills
  2. B) Talcott Parsons
  3. C) Robert K. Merton
  4. D) Ivan Nye

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 12

Skill: Knowledge

25) Dr. Zahn’s academic interest is analyzing various aspects of society and publishing his findings in sociological journals. In view of this, Dr. Zahn is considered to be a(n) ________ sociologist.

  1. A) applied
  2. B) practical
  3. C) basic
  4. D) reform

Answer:  C

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 13

Skill: Application

26) During his career, Anthony has worked as a juvenile police officer, corrections counselor in a state prison, and executive director of an urban redevelopment program. In view of this, which description best describes Anthony’s career path?

  1. A) Anthony has been a pure sociologist.
  2. B) Anthony has assumed the role of being a basic sociologist.
  3. C) Anthony has been an applied sociologist.
  4. D) Anthony has been a social reformer.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 13

Skill: Application

 

27) According to symbolic interactionists, the deciding factor that determines if change in society is good or bad requires ________.

  1. A) an understanding of who may have benefited from the change
  2. B) an understanding of who may have been victimized by the change
  3. C) a framework or context from which to view the meaning of the change
  4. D) a macroanalytical focus of the extent and duration of the change

Answer:  C

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 16

Skill: Application

28) Sociologists who analyze how social life depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely ________.

  1. A) ethnomethodologists
  2. B) functionalists
  3. C) conflict theorists
  4. D) symbolic interactionists

Answer:  D

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 16

Skill: Comprehension

29) Functionalists refer to how parts of a society fit together to form a whole as ________.

  1. A) a symbol
  2. B) a synthesis
  3. C) an integration
  4. D) a structure

Answer:  D

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 18

Skill: Knowledge

30) The two sociologists who referred to society as being a kind of living organism were _______ and ________.

  1. A) Auguste Comte; Emile Durkheim
  2. B) Karl Marx; Max Weber
  3. C) Auguste Comte; Herbert Spencer
  4. D) Emile Durkheim; Max Weber

Answer:  C

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 18

Skill: Knowledge

31) Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a(n) ________ and John would be seen as a(n) ________.

  1. A) symbolic interactionist; functionalist
  2. B) applied sociologist; functionalist
  3. C) basic sociologist; applied sociologist
  4. D) functionalist; conflict theorist

Answer:  D

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 17, 20

Skill: Application

32) According to Robert Merton, ________ are the intended beneficial consequences of people’s actions.

  1. A) latent functions
  2. B) manifest dysfunctions
  3. C) manifest functions
  4. D) latent dysfunctions

Answer:  C

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 18

Skill: Knowledge

33) College provides a haven for several million potential workers who are classified as “students” rather than “unemployed,” which helps stabilize the job market. This situation represents what Merton would describe as a ________.

  1. A) manifest function
  2. B) latent dysfunction
  3. C) manifest dysfunction
  4. D) latent function

Answer:  D

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 18

Skill: Application

34) The contemporary conflict sociologist who pointed out that conflict is most likely to develop among people in close relationships was ________.

  1. A) Lewis Coser
  2. B) Ralf Dahrendorf
  3. C) William Domhoff
  4. D) Howard Winet

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 20

Skill: Knowledge

35) Conflict theorists would contend that changes in ________ explain the high divorce rates in the United States.

  1. A) the functions of the family
  2. B) our culture’s beliefs about marriage
  3. C) the male-female power relationship
  4. D) our attitudes about commitment

Answer:  C

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 20-21

Skill: Comprehension

36) Which groups of social theorists would focus most on macro-level analysis when examining patterns of society?

  1. A) symbolic interactionists and structural functionalists
  2. B) symbolic interactionists and conflict theorists
  3. C) conflict theorists and functionalists
  4. D) conflict theorists and symbolic interactionists

Answer:  C

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 21

Skill: Application

37) Cindy is interested in how the movement of Maytag production plants and other industries from the Midwest to Mexico has changed the lives of thousands of unemployed workers and their communities. Cindy is conducting a ________ analysis.

  1. A) macro-level
  2. B) pure
  3. C) micro-level
  4. D) symbolic

Answer:  A

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 21-22

Skill: Application

 

38) Functionalists and conflict theorists tend to focus on the ________, or large scale patterns of society, in conducting their analyses.

  1. A) macro level
  2. B) micro level
  3. C) symbolic level
  4. D) interactionist level

Answer:  A

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 21

Skill: Knowledge

39) Sue is an expert in interpreting gestures, silence, the use of space, and expressions people make in their daily interactions. In view of this, how would Sue’s expertise be defined?

  1. A) Sue is a social linguist.
  2. B) Sue is an expert in multiculturalism.
  3. C) Sue recognizes the importance of globalization.
  4. D) Sue is an expert in nonverbal interaction.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 22

Skill: Evaluation

40) What is the relationship between theory and research, according to C. Wright Mills?

  1.  A) Theory without research is abstract and empty.
  2.        B) Theory is always to be considered superior to research.
  3. C) Research is always to be considered superior to theory.
  4. D) Research and theory should never interact.

 

Answer:     A

Diff: 1                 Page Ref: 22

Skill: Knowledge

41) Scientific research follows eight basic steps. One of these steps is _____________________.

  1. A) selecting an editor for the research
  2. B) formulating a hypothesis
  3. C) collecting opinions on the research’s importance
  4. D) finding a researcher to write a rebuttal

 

Answer:      B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 23

Skill: Knowledge

 

42) A hypothesis predicts a relationship between or among ___________________, factors that vary, or change, from one person or situation to another.

  1. A) operational definitions
  2. B) variables
  3. C) samples
  4. D) populations

 

Answer:      B

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 23

Skill: Knowledge

43) Sociologists use _________________ basic research designs to gather data.

  1. A) three
  2.        B) four
  3. C) ten
  4. D) seven

 

Answer:     D

Diff: 1                 Page Ref: 25

Skill: Knowledge

 

44) Some of the research designs that sociologists use to gather data include ______________________________.

  1. A) hypotheses
  2. B) case studies
  3. C) fictional accounts
  4. D) chemical analyses

 

Answer:   B

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 30

Skill: Knowledge

 

45) Gerard is examining online conversations in a public forum in which participants are discussing spousal abuse. What research method is he using?

  1.      A) unobtrusive measures
  2.        B) personal interviews
  3. C) double-blind study
  4. D) voluntary survey

 

Answer:   A

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 32

Skill: Application

 

46) Why might a sociologist interviewing women who have been abused by men garner more effective results if she is a female, rather than a male?

  1. A) Women make better interviewers in most sociological research.
  2.        B) Sociological research is valid only if it is conducted between members of the same sex.
  3. C) It is too easy for men to misunderstand what women say.
  4. D) Victimized women may be less willing to share experiences with a male.

 

Answer:     D

Diff: 1                 Page Ref: 33

Skill: Comprehension

 

47) Why was Mario Brajuha asked to reveal his restaurant observations?

  1. A) It was thought that his observations were not accurate.
  2.        B) The restaurant fire was suspicious.
  3. C) It is a common procedure to reveal the sources of sociological research.
  4. D) He was thought to be mentally unstable.

 

Answer:     B

Diff: 1                 Page Ref: 34

Skill: Knowledge

 

 

48) What are values in the context of sociology?

  1. A) beliefs about what is desirable in life and the way the world ought to be
  2.        B) estimations of the amount of time a given task will take
  3. C) indications of the financial worth of an object or entity
  4. D) figments of imagination used to gauge personality

 

Answer:     A

Diff: 1                 Page Ref: 35

Skill: Knowledge

 

49) How should a sociologist’s values affect his or her research, according to Max Weber?

  1. A) Research should reflect the values of the researcher.
  2.        B) Research should be value free.
  3. C) Researchers should allow their values to influence them only when it is clear something is morally wrong.
  4. D) Researchers should make sure to state their values before presenting their research findings.

 

Answer:     B

Diff: 1                 Page Ref: 35

Skill: Comprehension

 

50) What quality did Max Weber stress as being the hallmark of social research?

  1. A) subjective assessment
  2. B) sympathetic understanding
  3. C) objectivity or value neutrality
  4. D) capital investment

Answer:  C

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 35

Skill: Knowledge

51) The scientific method requires ________, or repeating a study in order to compare the new research results with the original findings.

  1. A) replication
  2. B) ethnography
  3. C) triangulation
  4. D) correlation

 

Answer:     A

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 35

Skill: Comprehension

 

52) How does replication improve the validity of sociological research?

  1. A) It can shape the world into the way it ought to be.
  2. B) It is likely to further distort research that was previously conducted.
  3. C) It is likely to give a subjective perspective on the research subject.
  4. D) It can indicate biases in the original work.

 

Answer:     D

Diff: 1                 Page Ref: 35

Skill: Comprehension

 

 

1.3    Short Answer Questions

1) What is social location?

Answer:  the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Knowledge

2) In addressing the sociological perspective, what did C. Wright Mills mean by “history”?

Answer:  Each society is located in a broad stream of events, giving it specific characteristics, values, and norms.

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Knowledge

3) What is the scientific method?

Answer:  the use of objective and systematic observation to test theories

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 5

Skill: Knowledge

4) Herbert Spencer suggested that to help lower classes is to interfere with the natural process of “survival of the fittest.” This concept was the key element in his view of the evolution of society, called ________.

Answer:  social Darwinism

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

5) According to the Wall Street Journal, who were the three greatest modern thinkers?

Answer:  Karl Marx, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Knowledge

6) Why did Durkheim’s research support the position that suicide was more of a sociological issue rather than one based on psychological theory?

Answer:  He found that people are more likely to commit suicide if their social connections are weak, and that suicide rates within countries and cultures remain constant, but differ considerably between cultures.

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 7

Skill: Analysis

7) Karl Marx claimed that ________ was the central force of social change, while Max Weber argued that ________ was actually the central force of social change.

Answer:  economics; religion

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 8

Skill: Knowledge

8) What did C. Wright Mills mean by the term “power elite”?

Answer:  the top business, political, and military leaders who made the major policy decisions and were a threat to the nation

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 12-13

Skill: Comprehension

9) Sociologically, what is the meaning of “symbols”?

Answer:  the things to which we attach meaning, the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 16

Skill: Knowledge

10) Robert Merton’s two classifications of function, both of which can help a system adjust, are called ________ and ________ functions.

Answer:  manifest; latent

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 18

Skill: Knowledge

 

11) According to Karl Marx, what single element was the key to understanding human history?

Answer:  class conflict

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 20

Skill: Knowledge

12) What are the similarities and differences between macro-level analysis and micro-level analysis?

Answer:  Macro-level analysis focuses on large-scale patterns of society. Micro-level analysis focuses on human behavior during social interactions.

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 21-22

Skill: Evaluation

13) What term is used by sociologists to refer to what people do when they are in one another’s presence?

Answer:  social interaction

Diff: 1       Page Ref: 21

Skill: Knowledge

14)The prevailing ideas in society, the things that “everyone knows” as true, are collectively referred to as ________.

Answer:  common sense

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 22

Skill: Knowledge

15) What is a hypothesis?

 

               Answer:    a statement of what you expect to find according to predictions that are based on a theory

Diff: 1                   Page Ref: 23

                 Skill: Knowledge

 

16) When collecting data, researchers must assure validity of their data. What is validity?

 

               Answer:   when operational definitions measure what they are intended to measure

               Diff: 2       Page Ref: 24

                   Skill: Knowledge

 

17) Reliability is very important in data collection. Reliability means that ________________________.

 

Answer:     if other researchers use your operational definitions, their findings should be consistent with yours

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 24

Skill: Knowledge

 

18) If using a survey to conduct research, the best way to get a fair representation is to use a random sample. What is a random sample?

 

Answer:     In a random sample, everyone in your population (the target group) has the same chance of being

included in the study.

Diff: 2                 Page Ref: 25

Skill: Knowledge

 

19) What is the purpose of conducting case studies?

 

Answer:   The researcher focuses on a single event, situation, or individual. The purpose is to understand the

dynamics of relationships and power or even the thinking that motivates people.

Diff: 2                   Page Ref: 30

Skill: Knowledge

 

 

20) Ethics and values in sociological research are very important. A graduate student named Mario Brajuha displayed high ethical behavior when he __________________________.

 

Answer:   conducted participant observation of restaurant workers. When a suspicious fire destroyed the restaurant, detectives and the suspected fire starters tried to get Brajuha to share his field notes, but he refused due to his ethical commitments.

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 34

Skill: Application

 

 

1.4    Essay Questions

1) Define the sociological perspective (or imagination), cite its components, and explain how they were defined by C. Wright Mills.

Answer:  The sociological perspective (or imagination) focuses on the groups and social contexts that influence the ways in which people live, enabling us to grasp the connection between history and biography. By history, Mills meant that each society is located in a broad stream of events. By biography, Mills referred to each individual’s specific experiences.

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Analysis

2) Briefly describe the factors that contributed to the emergence of sociology as a discipline in the 1800s.

Answer:   The factors contributing to the emergence of sociology were as follows: the Industrial Revolution, the American and French revolutions, and the success of the natural sciences in applying the scientific method in answering questions about the natural environment. The Industrial Revolution caused a great social upheaval in Europe as the shift from agriculture to factory production brought about many changes in people’s lives. These changes included an increase in urbanization, horrible working conditions, and the failure of tradition in providing answers for their life experiences. The American and French revolutions introduced new ideas about individuals’ inalienable rights. As a result, more democratic forms of governance were introduced and tradition no longer provided adequate answers for individuals. And, with the success of the natural sciences in answering questions about the natural environment by using the scientific method, some thought it logical to apply this method to questions about the social world.

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 5

Skill: Comprehension

3) Trace the historical development of sociology in Europe, beginning with an explanation of positivism. Conclude the answer with a brief description of the contributions of Comte, Spencer, Durkheim, Marx, and Weber.

Answer:  (Refer to the subsection on “Origins of Sociology.”) Historical development should cover the difference between science and tradition, and a discussion of pre-19th century thought and how it challenged the traditional thinking of the feudal period. It should include the main events that shaped sociology: the Industrial Revolution, the political revolution (American and French), and the use of the scientuific method. It should incorporate the influences of industrialization and urbanization on society and human interaction, as well as positivism (the application of the scientific method to the social world).

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 6-9

Skill: Knowledge

4) Explain the development of social Darwinism, as well as the differences between this concept and the philosophical ideals held by most sociologists.

Answer:  (Refer to the subheading on “Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism.”) Herbert Spencer was influenced by Darwin’s work, On the Origin of Species, and the biological and evolutionary importance of the “survival of the fittest,” transferring this theory to a social philosophy with his concept of social Darwinism. This concept rejected any notion of providing charity or helping the poor. Sociologists in America would be especially appalled by the notion of social Darwinism because of their commitment to social reform. European sociologists who were more theoretical also did not embrace the concept, and eventually social Darwinism was discredited.

Diff: 5       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Synthesis

5) Based on the work of Karl Marx, what are the two classes in society? Define each.

Answer:  The two classes in society as defined by Marx are the bourgeoisie and proletariat. The bourgeoisie are the capitalists, those who own the means of production. The proletariat refers to the exploited workers who do not own the means of production.

Diff: 4       Page Ref: 6-7

Skill: Knowledge

6) Summarize the main points of Karl Marx’s theory of class conflict.

Answer:  Marx felt the key to human history was based on class struggle. In every society, there is a small group that controls the means of production and exploits those who do not. In industrialized society, this struggle is between the bourgeoisie (the small group of capitalists who own the means to produce wealth) and the proletariat (the workers who are exploited by the capitalists). The capitalists are in control of society’s resources and can wield political power over workers if they rebel.

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 6-7

Skill: Comprehension

7) How did Max Weber explain the emergence of the “spirit of capitalism”?

Answer:  Weber believed that religion was the central force in social change. Protestants believed that financial success was a “sign” from God that they were saved and part of “God’s will.” To enhance this “sign” of salvation, they began to live frugal lives and invest the surplus money they made. As a result, they made more money. This readiness to invest money was what Weber called “the spirit of capitalism.”

Diff: 4       Page Ref: 9

Skill: Analysis

8) How did prejudice and discrimination affect the development of sociology in America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?

Answer:  In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, sexism and racism prevailed. Female sociologists and researchers were often denied faculty appointments in sociology, so they turned their efforts towards writing, activism, and reform. Examples include Harriet Martineau, Marion Talbot, Jane Addams, Ellen Gates Starr, Emily Greene Balch, and others. However, some early female pioneers did serve in government positions, such as Grace Abbott and Frances Perkins. Although W. E. B. Du Bois was the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, he was too poor to attend meetings of the American Sociological Association when invited and later found that when he could attend he could not utilize the same hotels and restaurants as his white colleagues. Until recently, his work contributions to the discipline have been neglected in sociology.

Diff: 4       Page Ref: 9-12

Skill: Analysis

9) Describe the major differences between basic sociology and applied sociology.

Answer:  Basic sociology is directed toward the development of theory and research, which attempt to answer basic questions about human social groups without making changes in these groups. Applied sociology involves the practical application of sociological knowledge to solve problems and shape social policy.

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 13

Skill: Analysis

10) Social life can be interpreted from one of three major theoretical frameworks. Describe the major points of each framework. List at least one sociologist who has been identified with each framework.

Answer:  (See the subsection of the text, “Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology.”) Begin by describing symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, and the conflict perspective. A comprehensive definition of each is presented by the author. Theorists associated with symbolic interactionism include Mead, Cooley, Ogburn, Burgess, and Lock. Those associated with functional analysis include Comte, Durkheim, Spencer, Parsons, and Merton. Those associated with the conflict perspective include Marx and Coser.

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 15-22

Skill: Comprehension

11) What are the basic steps of a research model? Identify at least four of them, and explain how they contribute to the development of research.

Answer:  There are eight general steps in a research model: select a topic, define the problem, review the literature, formulate a hypothesis, choose a research method, collect the data, analyze the results, share the results. Through this model, the subject matter is chosen, refined, researched, studied, analyzed, and finally presented.

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 23-24

Skill: Comprehension

12) Surveys are often used to find the “average” of a given sample or population. Name the three methods by which to measure the average in a data set, and provide an example of each.

Answer:  The mean is found by adding up a set of numbers and dividing the sum by the total of numbers used. Example: 2+3+4/3=3. The median is found by arranging a set of numbers from lowest to highest and identifying the number that falls in the middle. Example: The median of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 is 4. The mode is found by identifying the number that occurs most often in a set. Example: The mode of 2, 2, 2, 5, 6, 7, 7 is 2.

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 27

Skill: Comprehension

13) What are closed-ended questions and open-ended questions? Describe the benefits and shortcomings of both when used in conducting sociological research.

Answer:  Closed-ended questions contain a list of possible answers. They are useful for comparing respondents’ answers to one another, but they may make it difficult to capture the range of opinions on the subject being discussed. Open-ended questions do not have a set list of possible answers. They allow for a wide range of responses and opinions, but they may make it difficult to compare respondents’ answers to one another.

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 28

Skill: Comprehension

14) Imagine you are conducting a sociological experiment. Define the problem, then describe your procedure, experimental group, control group, independent variable, and dependent variable.

Answer:  Answers will vary. Example: I am conducting an experiment to test the effect of therapy on people with alcoholism. I will randomly divide the study participants into an experimental group that will receive therapy, and a control group that will not receive therapy. The independent variable is the therapy that is provided. The dependent variable is the behavior of the study participants and whether they continue to experience problems with alcohol.

Diff: 3       Page Ref: 32

Skill: Application

15) What was Weber’s view on how one’s personal values should affect social research? Has his view been adopted as the standard for all sociological research? Explain.

Answer:  Weber believed that sociological research should be value free, that a sociologist’s values should not affect his or her research. Weber wanted total objectivity, or “value neutrality,” to be the hallmark of social research. If values influence research, he said, sociological findings would be biased. Bias in research, however, is subject to some debate. Although sociologists agree that no one should distort data, they acknowledge that the values sociologists hold have a certain degree of influence on the topics they study and manner in which they conduct their research.

Diff: 2       Page Ref: 35

Skill: Application

 

1.5    Open Book Questions

1) The author describes the anguish and fear he experienced while mingling among the men in a homeless shelter to gather data for a pending research interest. Why would a professional individual such as the author, Dr. Henslin, submit himself to such standards “in the name of science”?

Answer:  Sociologists do many things in many different ways. The author was conducting research based on his own observation and participation. He was experiencing what the homeless experienced and using qualitative methods to learn from his subjects. Dr. Henslin had to experience the anguish of the homeless to effectively assess and analyze their plight and how it may be lessened through public sociology and social reform.

Diff: 4       Page Ref: 3–4

Skill: Analysis

2) Define social location. Provide a detailed account of your own social location, how it has changed in the past year, and how you expect it to change in the next five years.

Answer:  Social location is the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society. One’s individual social location will include age, occupation (part-time or full-time), sex, race or ethnicity, income, class, marital status, and a number of other variables. One’s social location changes constantly. A year ago the college student was a year younger and may have been a high school student, holding a different part-time job, living in a different neighborhood. Other statuses of the student (race, ethnicity, sex, and others) are less likely to change. Five years from now the student will be five years older and may expect to be a graduate student or a professional in the workforce, holding a different marital status, and experiencing other changes that can be predicted with some certainty.

Diff: 5       Page Ref: 4

Skill: Synthesis

3) The social Darwinist ideas of Herbert Spencer have been discredited, yet we still wrestle with the issue of how to deal with people who are poor, uneducated, mentally impaired, disabled, or criminal. What social policies might Spencer have advocated to deal with such people? Compare Spencer’s likely response to the strategy underlying current social policies toward these groups.

Answer:  Spencer may have advocated refusing to provide public support to such groups, isolating them to reduce the harm they could do, and preventing them from reproducing. Current social welfare policies are designed to provide some assistance for people who cannot provide for themselves, but to encourage people to take responsibility for their own welfare, to restrict the amount of public support for people who are physically and mentally able to support themselves, and to punish people who violate the law.

Diff: 6       Page Ref: 6

Skill: Evaluation

4) After reading the Down-to-Earth Sociology box “W. E. B. Du Bois: The Souls of Black Folk,” interpret Du Bois’s descriptions of the people with whom he lived in relation to “the Veil” that, Du Bois says, “hung between us and Opportunity.”

Answer:  Du Bois describes the children whom he taught as being eager and full of expectation. Their ability to gain an education, however, was severely limited by their means and opportunities. Du Bois describes going home with some of the children to Doc Burke’s farm, where they lived in a tiny cabin and scraped a living out of the ground. Du Bois mentions a common belief that Doc Burke would not keep his farm for long, that white people were sure to take it from him eventually. Other families that Du Bois describes live on insufficient wages and lack food. He pinpoints Josie, a girl who worked to support her family and wished to go to school but whose family was not likely to find enough money to send her. The attitudes of white people, moreover, are mentioned in passing as yet another contribution to the veil that was draped over the opportunities that hung just out of sight.

Diff: 6       Page Ref: 11

Skill: Analysis

5) After reading the Down-to-Earth Sociology box “Careers in Sociology: What Applied Sociologists Do,” discuss how these types of careers could contribute to the tension that exists between basic sociology and applied sociology.

Answer:  Basic sociology analyzes society, while applied sociology works toward its reform. In the case of the marketing researcher, the individual explains how she uses her knowledge of sociology to understand the needs of different groups and how to interact with them. In the case of the two sociologists with master’s degrees, the human service professional applies his knowledge of sociology to evaluate children’s programs and how they work for families, while the other individual utilizes her knowledge as a statistician in public health. Lastly, the doctorate sociologist applies his knowledge to urban waste and recycling and works to reform waste disposal laws. All four examples utilize their basic sociological knowledge and research skills to effectively make a difference in people’s communities and lives. These sociologists share traits of both basic and applied sociologists, but lean more toward applied sociology.

Diff: 6       Page Ref: 14

Skill: Evaluation

6)      The social history of the family and the U.S. divorce rate clearly show that many functions previously performed by the family are now performed by other institutions. List the functions currently performed by most families and explain how changes in society have contributed to the increased divorce rate.

 

Answer: Functions currently performed by families include: providing food, clothing, and shelter for young children; coordinating the work schedules of all individuals, often including two wage earners; providing transportation to work, school, after-school, and recreational activities for adults and children; coordinating financial matters for all members; providing moral guidance and supervision for children; providing for romantic and sexual activities for marriage partners; providing for recreational activities for marriage partners and young children. The discussion of changing functions should acknowledge that families still perform many functions, though they may differ from those of earlier generations. In addition, families face greater stress and different types of social problems in today’s fiercely competitive society. Children are subjected to greater and more dangerous temptations on the street and from their peers, including substance use, sexual predators, and negative peer influence. Raising a family is far more expensive in comparative dollars, and quality family time is often diminished, as compared to situations experienced by past generations.

Diff: 6            Page Ref:

Skill: Evaluation

 

7)      Using the eight steps of a research model, demonstrate the process by which a sociological study is conducted. Choose a subject that you are interested in studying and illustrate a potential study in this area, ensuring that you identify how all eight steps could be conducted.

Answer: Answers will vary. Example: 1) Select a topic: I would choose to study the sociological experiences of people who are homeless. 2) Define the problem: There is little known about the migration patterns of people who are homeless. 3) Review the literature: I would do an extensive search of sociological journals to determine what is known about the migration patterns of people who are homeless. 4) Formulate a hypothesis: I would create a hypothesis based on my review of the literature, such as “People who are homeless cycle through multiple living arrangements, including shelters, motels, and street living.” 5) Choose a research method: I would choose to conduct case studies of people who are homeless. 6) Collect the data: I would conduct the case studies of a chosen group of participants. 7) Analyze the results: I would examine the responses of participants and draw conclusions based on the findings. 8) Share the results: I would prepare a formal report detailing my hypothesis, methods, data collection, analysis, and conclusion.

Diff: 6       Page Ref: 23-24

Skill: Synthesis

 

 

8)      After reading the Down-to-Earth Sociology box “Loading the Dice: How Not to Do Research,” demonstrate three of the six ways to improperly conduct sociological research by giving examples of a hypothetical instance of misuse.

Answer: Answers will vary. Example: 1) Choose a biased sample: For a study of soda preferences, use participants who all work at a single soda company. 2) Ask biased questions: Use emotionally charged language in wording a sentence, such as “What is more important—protecting innocent children or allowing convicted criminals to roam the streets?” when asking about early release programs for prisoners. 3) List biased choices: Offer only grapes, oranges, peaches, and strawberries as choices for a question determining whether people prefer fruits or vegetables. 4) Discard undesirable results: Keep sending out surveys if the first one does not prove your hypothesis. 5) Misunderstand the subjects’ world: Fail to understand that people are unwilling to admit to something considered politically incorrect, such as being racist. 6) Analyze the data incorrectly: Enter incorrect data into the software program you are using to analyze your data.

Diff: 6       Page Ref: 29

Skill: Application

9)      After reading about closed-ended questions and open-ended questions, construct two versions of a question, one open and one closed, that asks about the same subject.

Answer:          Answers will vary. Example: Closed-ended question: Which of the following is a likely cause of homelessness? 1. alcoholism 2. poverty 3. lack of education 4. personal or moral failing 5. government policies Open-ended question: What do you think contributes to homelessness?

Diff: 6       Page Ref: 28

Skill: Synthesis

 

1.6       Line Art Questions

1)  Based on Figure 1.3, Elliot is a systems analyst for the Department of Health. In his position he evaluates the effectiveness of health care programs in rural communities. Based on Figure 1.3 “Comparing Basic and Applied Sociology,” which description best fits Elliot’s role as a sociologist?

  1. A) Elliot would best be classified as a dedicated basic sociologist.
  2. B) Elliot would best be classified as a dedicated applied sociologist.
  3. C) Elliot shares traits of both basic and applied sociologists but leans more towards the basic model.
  4. D) Elliot shares traits of both basic and applied sociologists but leans more towards the applied model.

Answer:    D

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 13

Skill: Application

2)  In Figure 1.3 “Comparing Basic and Applied Sociology,” what is the difference between basic and applied sociology regarding the audience and product of the effort?

Answer:    In basic sociology, the audience is composed of fellow sociologists and the product of their effort is knowledge. Applied sociologists attempt to achieve change for their audience, which is their clientele.

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 13

Skill: Evaluation

 

 

4)  Figure 1.5 “U.S. Marriage, U.S. Divorce” generally indicates that ________.

  1. A) both marriage and divorce have stabilized since 1980
  2. B) marriage is on the decrease while divorce is on the increase
  3. C) marriage is on the increase while divorce is on the decrease
  4. D) both marriage and divorce have decreased since 1980

Answer:    A

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 17

Skill: Comprehension

5)  In Figure 1.4, “Call Back Rates by Race-Ethnicity and Criminal Record,” what conclusions can be drawn from the graph?

Answer:    (1) Whites without criminal records are more likely to be called for employment when compared to anyone with a criminal record or to African Americans without a record.
(2) There are more whites with criminal records called back for employment than African Americans without a criminal record.
(3) Only about 1 in 10 African Americans with a criminal record will be called for employment, but 3 in 10 white applicants with a criminal record will be called.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 15

Skill: Analysis

1.7    Matching Questions

Match the term with the definition.

 

Skill: Knowledge

   1)  sociological perspective

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 4

2)  society

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 4

3)  the scientific method

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 5

4)  positivism

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 6

5)  bourgeoisie

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 6

6)  social integration

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 7

7)  replication

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 35

8)  values

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 35

9)  basic sociology

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 13

10)  applied sociology

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 13

11)  theory

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 15

12)  micro analysis

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 21

13)  macro analysis

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 21

14) operational definitions

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 24

15) secondary analysis

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 30

1) I; 2) F; 3) L; 4) O; 5) B; 6) M; 7) A; 8) G; 9) N; 10) E; 11) H; 12) D; 13) J; 14) C; 15) K

A)  repeating a study in order to test its findings

B)   Marx’s term for capitalists, those who own the means of productionC) precise ways to measure the variables

D)  an examination of small-scale patterns of society

E)   the use of sociology to solve problems

F)   people who share a culture and territory

G)  the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly

H)  a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work

I)    understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context

J)  an examination of large-scale patterns of society

K) during this, researchers analyze data that others have collected

L)       using objective, systematic observations to test theories

M)  the degree to which members of a group or society feel united by shared values and other social bonds

N)  sociological research whose purpose is to make discoveries about life in human groups

O)  the application of the scientific approach to the social world

essentials of sociology 10th edition henslin test bank