Human Anatomy & Physiology 9th edition Marieb, Hoehn Test Bank

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  • Published: 2012
  • ISBN-10: 0321743261
  • ISBN-13: 978-0321743268

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human anatomy & physiology 9th edition marieb test bank

Chapter 1

 Exam

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Figure 1.1

Using Figure 1.1, match the following cavities:

1) Thoracic cavity. 1)

2) Cranial cavity. 2)

3) Abdominal cavity. 3)

4) Vertebral cavity. 4)

1

Figure 1.2

Using Figure 1.2, match the following regions:

5) Input. 5)

6) Receptor. 6)

7) Output. 7)

8) Stimulus. 8)

9) Response. 9)

MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

Match the following systems to their functions:

10) Directly causes mechanical motion.

11) Responds to environmental changes

by transmitting electrical impulses.

12) Provides support and levers for

muscles to pull

13) Protects underlying organs from

environmental damage and

synthesizes vitamin D.

A) Integumentary

B) Muscular

C) Nervous

D) Skeletal

10)

11)

12)

13)

2

Match the following systems to their functions:

14) Controls the body with chemical

molecules called hormones.

15) Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the

tissues.

16) Produces antibodies that attach to

foreign substances.

17) Removes and filters excess fluid from

tissues.

A) Immune

B) Lymphatic

C) Endocrine

D) Cardiovascular

14)

15)

16)

17)

Match the following examples of feedback mechanisms:

18) Used for changes in blood glucose

levels

19) Used for changes in blood pressure

20) Used for blood clotting

21) Used for childbirth

A) Negative feedback

B) Positive feedback

18)

19)

20)

21)

Match the following systems and organs:

22) Arteries, veins, heart.

23) Trachea, bronchi, alveoli.

24) Adrenal glands, pancreas, pituitary.

25) Esophagus, large intestine, rectum.

26) Kidneys, bladder, ureters.

A) Cardiovascular

B) Urinary

C) Respiratory

D) Digestive

E) Endocrine

22)

23)

24)

25)

26)

Match the following cavities and organs:

27) Stomach.

28) Heart.

29) Uterus.

30) Brain.

31) Lungs.

A) Abdominopelvic

B) Crania

C) Thoracic

27)

28)

29)

30)

31)

3

Match the following regional terms and common terms:

32) Arm.

33) Buttock

34) Head

35) Knee (anterior aspect)

36) Chest.

A) Patellar

B) Cephalic

C) Gluteal

D) Brachial

E) Thoracic

32)

33)

34)

35)

36)

Match the regional/directional terms and examples:

37) The bridge of the nose is ________ to

the left eye.

38) The upper arm is ________ to the

forearm.

39) The lungs are ________ to the heart.

40) The fingers are ________ to the wrist.

41) The stomach is ________ to the spine.

A) Proximal

B) Medial

C) Distal

D) Anterior

E) Lateral

37)

38)

39)

40)

41)

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

42) Positive feedback mechanisms tend to enhance the original stimulus so that the response is

accelerated.

42)

43) Imaging is useful in discovering obstructed blood supplies in organs and tissues. 43)

44) The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing forward and

the thumbs pointing away from the body.

44)

45) The elbow is proximal to the shoulder. 45)

46) The part of the serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral peritoneum. 46)

47) A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction. 47)

48) The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach. 48)

49) Lungs carry out an excretory function. 49)

50) Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception through

old age.

50)

4

51) A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function. 51)

52) It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment

remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it.

52)

53) Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body

chemistry in balance.

53)

54) . Responsiveness or irritability is the ability to sense changes in the environment and then respond

to them.

54)

55) The epigastric region is superior to the umbilical region. 55)

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

56) Histology would be best defined as a study of ________. 56)

A) cell chemistry B) tissues

C) the gross structures of the body D) cells

57) The study of large body structures, visible to the naked eye, such as the heart is called ________

anatomy.

57)

A) microscopic B) gross C) systemic D) developmental

58) An increased rate of breathing as a result of an increased buildup of carbon dioxide in the

bloodstream would be best described as an example of ________.

58)

A) responsiveness B) metabolism

C) maintaining boundaries D) excretion of metabolic waste

59) Average body temperature is ________ degrees centigrade. 59)

A) 68 B) 98 C) 47 D) 37

60) If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat would

be the ________.

60)

A) effector B) receptor C) control center D) variable

61) What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback? 61)

A) to keep the body’s blood sugar level high B) to maintain homeostasis

C) to control body movement D) to regulate excretion via the kidneys

62) What is the regional term for the hip region? 62)

A) coxal B) pedal C) inguinal D) manus

63) An oblique cut is one that is cut ________. 63)

A) vertically right and left

B) horizontally superior and inferior

C) diagonally between vertical and horizontal planes

D) perpendicular to vertical and horizontal planes

5

64) The heart lies in the ________ cavity. 64)

A) dorsal B) pericardial

C) superior mediastinal D) pleural

65) The cavities housing the eyes are called ________ cavities. 65)

A) orbital B) cranial C) nasal D) frontal

66) A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific

functions for the body is a(n) ________.

66)

A) organ system B) organ C) complex tissue D) complex cell

67) ________ cavities are spaces within joints. 67)

A) Orbital B) Nasal C) Oral D) Synovial

68) Which of the following would not be a functional characteristic of life? 68)

A) responsiveness to external stimuli B) decay

C) maintenance of boundaries D) movement

69) Which term means toward or at the back of the body, behind? 69)

A) lateral B) distal C) anterior D) dorsal

70) The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60% to 80% of body

weight, is ________.

70)

A) hydrogen B) oxygen C) protein D) water

71) The posterior knee area is called ________. 71)

A) antecubital B) popliteal C) crural D) sural

72) Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms? 72)

A) Blood glucose levels are regulated by positive feedback mechanisms.

B) Negative feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus.

C) Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.

D) Positive feedback mechanisms always result in excessive damage to the host.

73) The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except ________. 73)

A) body erect B) arms at sides

C) thumbs pointed laterally D) palms turned posteriorly

74) A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be ________. 74)

A) blood calcium level regulation B) regulating glucose levels in the blood

C) body temperature regulation D) enhancement of labor contractions

75) Which of the following describes a parasagittal plane? 75)

A) any cut dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions

B) a transverse cut just above the knees

C) any sagittal plane except in the midline

D) two cuts dividing the body into left and right halves

6

76) Which of the following organs or structures would be found in the left iliac region? 76)

A) stomach B) appendix C) liver D) intestines

77) The parietal pleura would represent a serous membrane ________. 77)

A) covering individual lungs B) covering the heart

C) lining the abdominal cavity D) lining the thoracic cavity

78) Which one of the following systems responds fastest to environmental stimuli? 78)

A) lymphatic B) immune C) nervous D) muscular

79) Choose the anatomical topic and definition that is not correctly matched. 79)

A) Cytology: study of the structures in a particular region.

B) Embryology: study of the changes in an individual from conception to birth.

C) Microscopic anatomy: study of structures too small to be seen by the naked eye.

D) Gross anatomy: study of structures visible to the eye.

80) Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains ________. 80)

A) the lowest possible energy usage

B) a dynamic state within an unlimited range, depending on circumstances

C) a relatively stable internal environment, within limits

D) a static state with no deviation from preset points

81) In which body cavities are the lungs located? 81)

A) mediastinal, thoracic, and ventral B) pleural, ventral, and thoracic

C) pericardial, ventral, and thoracic D) pleural, dorsal, and abdominal

82) Choose the following statement that is not completely correct regarding serous membranes. 82)

A) Serous membranes secrete a watery lubricating fluid.

B) Serous membranes are divided into parietal and visceral membranes with a virtual space

between the two.

C) Serosa are very thin, double- layered structures.

D) Visceral pericardium covers the outer surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the

internal walls of the heart.

83) Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex:

1. molecules

2. atoms

3. tissues

4. cells

5. organs

83)

A) 2- 1- 3- 4- 5 B) 2- 1- 4- 3- 5 C) 1- 2- 3- 4- 5 D) 1- 2- 4- 3- 5

84) Which of the following imaging devices would best localize a tumor in a person’s brain? 84)

A) DSA B) MRI C) PET D) X ray

85) Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity? 85)

A) cranial cavity B) thoracic cavity C) vertebral cavity D) spinal cord

7

86) In which quadrant of the abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located? 86)

A) right upper quadrant B) left lower quadrant

C) right lower quadrant D) left upper quadrant

87) Which of the following statements is the most correct regarding homeostatic imbalance? 87)

A) It is considered the cause of most diseases.

B) Negative feedback mechanisms are functioning normally.

C) The internal environment is becoming more stable.

D) Positive feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed.

88) Which of the following are subdivisions of anatomy? 88)

A) gross, macroscopic, visual, and microscopic

B) regional, systemic, and surface

C) regional, surface, visual, and microscopic

D) gross, regional, dissection, and surface

89) The term pollex refers to the ________. 89)

A) fingers B) great toe C) calf D) thumb

90) The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following? 90)

A) lungs B) liver C) intestines D) brain

91) Select the most correct statement. 91)

A) Organ systems operate independently of each other to maintain life.

B) The endocrine system is not a true structural organ system.

C) The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system.

D) Organ systems can be composed of cells or tissues, but not both.

92) One of the functional characteristics of life is excitability or responsiveness. This refers to ________. 92)

A) the necessity for all organisms to reproduce

B) the nervous system causing all living things to sometimes experience anger

C) indigestible food residues stimulating the excretory system

D) sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them

93) Which of the following are survival needs of the body? 93)

A) nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen

B) water, atmospheric pressure, growth, and movement

C) nutrients, water, movement, and reproduction

D) nutrients, water, growth, and reproduction

94) The anatomical position is used ________. 94)

A) as a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the

body

B) only when a body is lying down one one’s back rather than stomach

C) rarely, because people don’t usually assume this position during waking moments

D) for proper placement of a patient or a cadaver upon an operating table in order to reach all

major organs

95) What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into left and right, called? 95)

A) sagittal B) frontal C) transverse D) regional

8

96) What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions called? 96)

A) median B) sagittal C) frontal D) transverse

97) The body cavities that protect the nervous system are located in the ____ cavity. 97)

A) vertebral B) thoracic C) ventral D) dorsal E) cranial

98) Which of the following describes the operation of the heart and blood vessels? 98)

A) systemic physiology B) cardiovascular physiology

C) systemic anatomy D) cardiovascular anatomy

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

99) Similar cells that have a common function are called ________. 99)

100) What does the “principle of complementarity of structures and function” mean? 100)

101) The term that describes the back of the elbow is ________. 101)

102) The term that describes the neck region is ________. 102)

103) The heart is ________ to the arm. 103)

104) The ________ cavity contains tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of

hearing in the inner ear.

104)

105) ________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the

function of specific organs or organic systems.

105)

106) What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed? 106)

107) Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum? 107)

108) What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called? 108)

109) ________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function. 109)

110) What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells? 110)

111) What is the function of the serous membranes? 111)

112) Fully describe the anatomical position for the human body. 112)

113) What does gross anatomy study? 113)

114) Can lungs carry out excretory functions? Explain your answer. 114)

9

115) The higher we go in the mountains, the greater the atmospheric pressure, resulting in an

increase in available oxygen. Comment on this statement.

115)

116) Why is anatomical terminology necessary? 116)

117) The five unique cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ________. 117)

118) The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called ________. 118)

119) What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body? 119)

120) Why must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be

continued at life- sustaining rates?

120)

121) What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway

called?

121)

122) What type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex? 122)

123) Why are the abdominopelvic cavity organs the most vulnerable to blunt deceleration in an

automobile accident with seat belts?

123)

124) What is the goal of all of the negative feedback mechanisms of the body? 124)

125) Which feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its

original value or range?

125)

126) What can happen when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and

destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over?

126)

127) Which body system would be most affected by a lower than normal atmospheric pressure? 127)

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

128) A small family was traveling in its van and had a minor accident. The children in the back seats were wearing

lap belts, but still sustained numerous bruises about the abdomen, and had some internal organ injuries. Why is

this area more vulnerable to damage than others?

129) Steve was injured in a football accident. X- ray examination showed a fracture underlying his left brachial

deformity. What part of his body was injured?

130) Judy is 16 years old and collapses on the gym floor with severe pain in her chest wall every time she takes a

deep breath. She is rushed by ambulance to the emergency room. Judy is diagnosed with pleurisy and is given

an anti- inflammatory drug through the intravenous route. Explain why an anti- inflammatory drug would be

prescribed for someone with pleurisy.

131) Sara is giving birth to her first child. She is concerned that her labor is taking longer than she thought it would.

Why does giving birth usually take time for the contractions to proceed to the point when the child is born?

10

132) The nurse charted: “Patient has an open wound located on lateral aspect of leg.” Describe where the wound is

located.

11

Answer Key

Testname: UNTITLED1

1) C

2) A

3) D

4) B

5) C

6) B

7) D

8) A

9) E

10) B

11) C

12) D

13) A

14) C

15) D

16) A

17) B

18) A

19) A

20) B

21) B

22) A

23) C

24) E

25) D

26) B

27) A

28) C

29) A

30) B

31) C

32) D

33) C

34) B

35) A

36) E

37) B

38) A

39) E

40) C

41) D

42) TRUE

43) TRUE

44) TRUE

45) FALSE

46) FALSE

47) TRUE

48) FALSE

49) TRUE

50) FALSE

12

Answer Key

Testname: UNTITLED1

51) TRUE

52) TRUE

53) TRUE

54) TRUE

55) TRUE

56) B

57) B

58) D

59) D

60) C

61) B

62) A

63) C

64) B

65) A

66) B

67) D

68) B

69) D

70) D

71) B

72) C

73) D

74) D

75) C

76) D

77) D

78) C

79) A

80) C

81) B

82) D

83) B

84) B

85) B

86) D

87) A

88) B

89) D

90) D

91) C

92) D

93) A

94) A

95) A

96) C

97) D

98) B

99) tissues

100) What a structure can do depends on its specific form, or “structure determines function.”

13

Answer Key

Testname: UNTITLED1

101) olecranal

102) cervical

103) medial

104) middle ear

105) Physiology

106) homeostasis

107) pelvic

108) visceral peritoneum

109) Renal

110) metabolism

111) They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls.

112) The body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away from the midline.

113) Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye.

114) Yes, carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete.

115) At high altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is less than at lower levels resulting in a decrease in oxygen levels. The

lower oxygen levels may be inadequate to support cellular metabolism.

116) Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion when describing the location of

body parts.

117) orbital

118) responsiveness or excitability

119) water

120) If body temperature is too low, chemical reactions slow and eventually stop. If body temperature is too high, chemical

reactions speed up and body proteins lose their normal shape, resulting in loss of function.

121) afferent pathway

122) negative

123) The walls of the abdominal cavity are formed only by trunk muscles and are not reinforced by bone. The pelvic organs

receive a somewhat greater degree of protection from the bony pelvis.

124) The goal is to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.

125) positive feedback

126) Homeostatic imbalances increase our risk for illness and produce the changes we associate with aging.

127) respiratory system

128) The abdominal organs are the least protected in the body because they are not surrounded by a bony covering such as

the ribs, pelvis, or cranium.

129) His left upper arm

130) The pleural space contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant, allowing the pleurae to slide smoothly over

each other as the lungs expand and contract. Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleura around the lungs. When

inflammation occurs in the pleural space, the pleurae do not slide smoothly and this causes severe pain that is more

directly transmitted by the parietal than the visceral pleura.

131) Childbirth is based on the increasing levels of oxytocin that cause the uterine contractions. Under positive feedback,

oxytocin levels increase which results in increasing strong contractions by the upper uterus that will ultimately result

in the birth of the child. But this positive feedback needs numerous contraction cycles to overcome the muscular

resistance to stretching in the lower uterus in order for the head to pass.

132) The wound is located on the outer side of the leg, the peroneal or fibular area.

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