Human Sexuality 3rd edition Hock Test Bank

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  • Published: 2013
  • ISBN13: 978-0205227433
  • ISBN10: 0205227430

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human sexuality 3rd edition hock test bank

CHAPTER 1:

Studying Human Sexuality

Total Assessment Guide (T.A.G.)

Topic Question

Type

Factual Conceptual Application
Introduction to Chapter Multiple Choice 1 3 2
True/False 1-2
Short Answer 1
Essay
Historical Perspectives Multiple Choice 4
True/False 3
Short Answer 2
Essay
Experiencing Human Sexuality Multiple Choice 3, 6-7, 9 5, 8
True/False 5, 8 3, 4, 6 7
Short Answer 3 4

 

Essay  

 

1
Understanding Human Sexuality Multiple Choice 10-12 13, 15, 17, 19-20 14, 16, 21 18
True/False 10, 13

 

9, 11, 12
Short Answer 6, 7 5
Essay 3 2
Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality Multiple Choice 22, 23, 32, 35, 37, 25-26, 42, 44, 52, 55, 59, 62 , 38, 40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 48, 53, 56-58, 63 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 36, 39, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60
True/False 13, 15, 17, 21-22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 12, 14, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 29

 

16, 20, 21, 24
Short Answer 7, 9, 10, 11, 14 12, 13
Essay 4 5
Ethics and Sexuality Research Multiple Choice 55 54 56
True/False 30, 31 32
Short Answer 15
Essay 5, 6

Major Headings:

 

  1. 4 Introduction to Chapter
  2. 4-5 Historical Perspectives
  3. 5-8 Experiencing Human Sexuality
  4. 8–17 Understanding Human Sexuality
  5. 17-29 Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality
  6. 29-31 Ethics and Sexuality Research

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. ______ refers to a person’s unique foundation of knowledge, attitudes, and actions relating to what the person wants and who he or she is as a sexual being.
  2. Human sexuality
  3. Personal sexual philosophy
  4. Sexual orientation
  5. Gender identity

 

Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page ref:  4
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: A personal sexual philosophy encompasses many aspects of an individual’s emotional and intellectual makeup, and can influence his/her beliefs and behaviors.

 

  1. Professor Awajadi has dedicated her career to an area of study that focuses on all aspects of humans as sexual beings. This area of study is referred to as _______.
  2. human sexuality
  3. sexual health
  4. sexual orientation
  5. gender identity

 

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref:  4
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Application

 

Rationale: Human sexuality is a broad concept, and encompasses the emotional, psychological, and behavioral components of human beings, and can influence and in turn be influenced by, their attitudes and beliefs.

 

  1. The term morals refers to _______.
  2. a study focusing on all aspects of humans as sexual beings
  3. a person’s unique foundation of knowledge and attitudes as a sexual being
  4. a person’s individual, unique attitude about what constitutes right and wrong
  5. the sex that a person identifies himself or herself to be

 

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 4
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: One of the ways in which people differ from one another is in their beliefs about what is right and what is wrong. Such beliefs, or morals, contribute to what makes each person unique.

 

  1. Before the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case of _______, abortion was illegal in this country.
  2. the American Psychiatric Association
  3. Kinsey
  4. Louise Brown
  5. Roe vs. Wade

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: Inside Front Cover

Topic: Historical Perspectives

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: The 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court case of Roe vs. Wade legalized abortion in the United States.

 

  1. Which of the following describes a person’s view of himself or herself as a man or woman?
  2. gender stereotype
  3. sexual health
  4. sexual orientation
  5. gender identity

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 6

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: The concept of identity refers to what an individual believes him/herself to be, and can be based on a number of factors, one of which is gender.

 

  1. The term sexual orientation most accurately refers to what kind of attraction with respect to gender?
  2. sexual
  3. romantic, religious, and political
  4. sexual and romantic
  5. romantic, emotional, and sexual

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 6

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: Human beings are multifaceted, and their capacity to feel attracted to another person can be sexual, emotional, and/or romantic.

 

  1. According to the text, having a clear sense of _______ are factors that contribute to making responsible sexual choices throughout life.
  2. political beliefs
  3. morals and values
  4. gender identity
  5. sexual orientation

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 6

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual
Rationale: The term morals refers to an individual’s personal sense of right and wrong; the term values refers to his/her beliefs. People who have clear-cut views about what they believe is right and wrong usually make more responsible sexual choices.

 

  1. In Western cultures, people think that the term sex refers only to intercourse; this belief _______.
  2. can lead to an increase in rates of teen pregnancy
  3. ignores the full range of sexual experiences and pleasure that human beings can have
  4. is usually held by people with low levels of education
  5. is almost impossible to change

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 7

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: There are a wide variety of pleasurable activities and experiences that human beings can have that can be termed sexual. Sexual intercourse is only one of them.

 

  1. According to the textbook, most of today’s sexual problems, such as unwanted pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted infections, stem from _______.
  2. insertive sexual practices such as vaginal, oral, and anal sex
  3. sexual contact with strangers
  4. sexual contact with many partners
  5. engaging in sexual intercourse before the age of 14

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 7

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: Due to human anatomy and physiology, an insertive sexual practice such as those mentioned above are more likely to lead to pregnancy and/or to the transmission of an STI than sexual contact with strangers, sexual contact with many partners, or sexual intercourse before a certain age.

  1. College students who take a course that focuses on sexual health are more likely to _______.
  2. feel they know everything there is to know about sex
  3. use condoms and other forms of contraception
  4. teach other people about sex
  5. want to talk about sex more often than before they took the course

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 9

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: When students are exposed to information on sexual health, they tend to make more responsible sexual choices. Specifically, such students are more likely to use condoms and other forms of contraception than students who have not been exposed to such information.

 

  1. Abstinence-only sex education programs teach that _______.
  2. sex is not an important part of life
  3. engaging in sex at a young age can cause sexual problems in later life
  4. teenagers should wait until they are married to have sex and therefore, don’t need information about contraception or sexually transmitted infections
  5. it’s easier for girls to avoid sex because they have stronger personalities than boys

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 9

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: The material that is usually included in abstinence-only sex education courses is significantly different from the material in information-based sex education courses. The former teaches that young people should wait until marriage to become sexually active and therefore they don’t need information about sex.

  1. The current emphasis in sex education is away from abstinence-only programs, and toward programs that _______.
  2. contain accurate information that will help teens to make more responsible decisions about sex
  3. emphasize the importance of religion in sexual decision-making
  4. use peer educators to teach teens about sex.
  5. cover health issues instead of sexual issues

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 9

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: In comparison to other western countries, the United States has relatively high rates of teenage pregnancy and of sexually-transmitted infections. In recognition of this, sex education programs that contain accurate information have been found to be more useful in helping young people to make responsible sexual choices than are abstinence-only sex education programs.

 

  1. For most people, a great deal of sexual knowledge probably stems from _______.
  2. taking a human sexuality course
  3. high school sex education class
  4. informal sex education networks
  5. formal, scientific sources

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 13

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: Many people are embarrassed to discuss sexual matters, and often turn to those individuals with whom they feel most comfortable when they have a sexual problem or concern. While this is understandable, such a practice is not always a source of accurate information.

  1. Which of the following is a reason for China’s newfound interest in sex education?
  2. Boys are reaching puberty at increasingly younger ages.
  3. Openly discussing sex is now considered to be socially acceptable.
  4. There is an increasing concern about sexually-transmitted infections.
  5. The availability of unhealthy foods has led to a later onset of puberty.

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 14

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: Few countries are immune from sexually-transmitted infections. China, an increasingly modernized society with over a billion people, is no exception.

 

  1. In an effort to educate young people about sex, the Chinese government _______.
  2. is experimenting with a sex education program aimed at middle-school boys
  3. created a book for adults only entitled You and Me
  4. is encouraging abstinence by prohibiting the sale of condoms
  5. created a website for the country aimed at discussing a variety of sexual topics

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 14

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: With over a billion people, the Internet one of the best ways to reach a majority of the Chinese population.

 

  1. Damian has a fear of being sexually abnormal. This fear _______.
  2. is a common one that is held by many people
  3. may enhance his ability to experience pleasure and intimacy
  4. can cause him to lose interest in sex
  5. can increase his sexual desire

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 15

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: Many people are reluctant to discuss sexual issues due to embarrassment or to the fear that they might be perceived as different or abnormal.

 

  1. _______ refers to a wide range of physical, psychological, and emotional issues relating to sexuality.
  2. Gender identity
  3. Sexual orientation
  4. Personal sexual philosophy
  5. Sexual health

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 15

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: The term health goes beyond the physical. In order to determine sexual health, one must take into account not only the physical, but the psychological and emotional as well.

 

  1. Elise is learning about a wide range of issues relating to sexuality, including problems with sexual functioning, the sexual anatomy, sexually-transmitted infections, and sexual violence. She is learning about _______.
  2. gender identity
  3. parenting
  4. sexual orientation
  5. sexual health

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 15-16

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: The concept of sexual health is multi faceted and includes the above aspects of an individual’s sexual persona.

 

  1. According to a research study, parents who had taken a human sexuality course were found to be _______.
  2. more likely to discuss aspects of sexuality with their children
  3. less likely to use correct terminology when discussing sexuality with their children
  4. less likely to discuss aspects of sexuality with their children
  5. more likely to ask teachers to discuss sexuality with their children

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 16

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: People who have taken a course on human sexuality can reap the benefits of such an experience for many years. One such benefit is that when they become parents, they are more likely to discuss sexual matters with their children than people who have not taken a human sexuality course.

 

  1. According to research that explored the effects of a human sexuality course on parents’ discussions of sexuality with their children, which percentage of parents who took the course discussed masturbation with their children?
  2. 45
  3. 30
  4. 14
  5. 2

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 17

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: For parents who have taken a course on human sexuality, their likelihood of discussing specific aspects of sex, such as masturbation, is greater than for parents who have taken such a course.

 

  1. People who take a course in human sexuality _______.
  2. have less satisfying sex lives
  3. are less tolerant of others sexual preferences
  4. are more likely to worry about being sexually abnormal
  5. have a greater level of comfort in discussing sexual issues

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 18

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: Taking a human sexuality class exposes people to material that is often thought of as embarrassing or controversial. Such exposure can alleviate their discomfort in discussing such matters.

  1. When conducting a research study, _______.
  2. researchers should introduce their own biased attitudes into the study
  3. information should be gathered so that it can be analyzed using statistics
  4. confidentiality of participants is not necessary
  5. researchers need to ensure that the study cannot be replicated

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 19

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: Statistical analysis of data can provide additional understanding and insight into many types of social science research results.

 

  1. A _______ is the process of collecting information from volunteer respondents for the purpose of explaining, describing, or comparing people’s knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
  2. case study
  3. correlation
  4. experiment
  5. survey

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 19

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: A survey is a very commonly-used method in social science because it affords respondents with opportunities to provide their levels of knowledge, express their opinions, and state their behaviors on a wide range of subjects.

 

  1. Professor Franco is interested in collecting data from a group of individuals concerning their sexual beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Which research method should Professor Franco use to obtain those kinds of data?
  2. a case study
  3. direct observation
  4. an experiment
  5. a survey

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 19

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: A survey is the most commonly-used method to explore respondents’ beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors about sexual issues.

 

  1. Individuals selected to respond to a researcher’s request for information are called _______.
  2. respondents
  3. volunteers
  4. assistants
  5. experimenters

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 19

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: A respondent is one who provides information in a social science survey.

 

  1. Large-scale surveys of sexual behavior and attitudes were pioneered by _______ in the 1940s.
  2. Hite
  3. Kinsey
  4. Janus
  5. Masters and Johnson

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 19

Topic: Methods Used

for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: Kinsey was the first one to do this type of research.

 

  1. Dr. George is beginning a study in which he will ask participants to give personal and potentially sensitive information about their sexual attitudes and behaviors. Which survey method should he use to get the most honest replies?
  2. face-to-face interview
  3. telephone survey
  4. Internet survey
  5. self-administered written questionnaire

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 19-20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: The survey that consists of a self-administered questionnaire affords the researcher with the greatest potential for obtaining information as potentially sensitive as an individual’s sexual attitudes and behaviors.

 

  1. Researchers conducting a sex survey who are interested in establishing a trusting rapport with participants and who wish to have more flexibility when asking planned and follow-up questions should use which of the following?
  2. written questionnaire
  3. face-to-face interview
  4. telephone survey
  5. Internet survey

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: During the course of a survey, researchers may wish to ask additional questions, or he/she can request clarification or elaboration from a respondent. This is more readily accomplished when the researcher employs a face-to-face interview with the respondent.

 

  1. A researcher is conducting a sex survey and would like to use a method that allows for both anonymity and flexibility in questioning. Which type of survey should this researcher use?
  2. written questionnaire
  3. face-to-face interview
  4. telephone survey
  5. Internet survey

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: If the researcher is speaking directly to the respondent, the former can ask additional questions, or he/she can request clarification or elaboration. The anonymity of the telephone survey allows the respondent to provide only as much personal information as he/she wishes.

 

  1. Surveys conducted over the Internet _______.
  2. can contain too many responses to be useful
  3. are not used very often because they cost too much money
  4. are used primarily by researchers who have degrees in computer science
  5. can provide a large number of responses from a wide geographical area in a short amount of time

 

Answer: D

Difficulty 1

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: The ubiquity of the Internet allows survey researchers to enjoy advantages with regard to the number of respondents who can be accessed, as well as in their geographical distribution. The Internet also can shorten the time it takes to complete a potentially large-scale survey.

 

  1. Professor Jones is attempting to apply his study’s findings to all students enrolled in sexuality classes. All students enrolled in sexuality classes are considered Professor Jones’ _______.
  2. sample
  3. random sample
  4. target population
  5. representative sample

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: The target population is the group on whom research is focused, and to whom findings will be applied.

 

  1. The term used to describe a subset of the target population selected by researchers to represent the entire population under study is the _______.
  2. sample
  3. experimental group.
  4. participants
  5. volunteers

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: It is not always feasible or necessary to contact every member of the target population, so a representative sample of that group is used.

 

  1. Dr. Grenier is studying the sexual behaviors of American millionaires. Should Dr. Grenier go to the local welfare office and ask people waiting in line to receive food stamps to fill out his questionnaire?
  2. Yes. In a difficult economy there are many kinds of people who need food stamps.
  3. No. If he did, his sample would not represent the target population he wants to study.
  4. Yes. He might get some very interesting responses.
  5. No. It would take too long to get enough responses to use in his study.

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: Many research projects fail because their samples are not representative of their population; this question provides a glaring example of a sample that would not be representative of the target population. Millionaires are not usually found waiting in line in a welfare office.

 

  1. Professor Karney’s target population consisted of several thousand people, so he decided to select a sample in such a way that each member of the target population had an equal chance of being selected. Which of the following terms describes the method he used to select a sample?
  2. self-selection
  3. self-report
  4. random sampling
  5. target sampling

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: The term random sampling is a method of selecting the individuals who actually participate in a research project in such a way that each member of the target population has an equal chance of being chosen.

 

  1. In 2002, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a study of human sexuality using face-to-face interviews with over 5,000 men and women in the United States. What is the name of that study?
  2. The Kaplan Global Sex Survey
  3. The National Intercourse Study
  4. The National Survey of Family Growth
  5. The Hite Report

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 21

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: The National Survey of Family Growth is an example of an ongoing, large-scale longitudinal survey.

 

  1. Dr. Levin allowed members of his target population to volunteer to participate in his study. As a result, the findings of Dr. Levin’s study were influenced by _______.
  2. self-report bias
  3. social desirability bias
  4. sexual bias
  5. self-selection bias

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 22

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: Self-selection bias occurs when members of a target population volunteer to participate in a study. Such a bias can cause the results of a study to be called into question.

 

  1. A research study that compared volunteer and randomly-selected participants for sexuality research revealed that _______.
  2. volunteers were younger in age
  3. volunteers had a lower income level
  4. non-volunteers were more sexually permissive
  5. non-volunteers had more liberal political views

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 22

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: People who volunteer to participate in research projects often differ from randomly-selected participants on a number of important variables. An example of a specific variable is age; volunteers tend to be younger than those who are randomly selected.

 

  1. Which of the following describes a flaw in the methodology used in surveys found in magazines?
  2. Too many readers may respond which may result in calculation errors.
  3. The targeted audience may be too broad and therefore may not be representative of their readers.
  4. Most respondents are readers of the magazine and therefore would not represent the general population.
  5. Researchers are apt to adjust the findings so they seem acceptable to the reader.

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 23

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: Most magazines are geared to specific types of readers rather than to the general public. Such a phenomenon ensures that a survey done by any given magazine will probably not be representative of the American population as a whole.

 

  1. A researcher conducted a study about flirting behavior among adults. She gathered data by watching the behavior of adults in public places such as bars and nightclubs. The _______ research method was used in this study.
  2. probability
  3. correlational
  4. experimental
  5. observational

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 22-23

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: When social scientists engage in people-watching, they are doing observational research.

 

  1. Masters and Johnson believed that to understand human sexual behavior, researchers should _______.
  2. only ask people what they do sexually
  3. study actual physiological responses to sexual stimulation
  4. use anecdotal evidence to draw scientific conclusions
  5. explore the sexual history of adults

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 24

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: Masters and Johnson were innovators in many aspects of human sexuality research; their belief that studying physiological responses was key to understanding human sexuality was one such example.

 

  1. The results of Masters and Johnson’s early work established a basic foundation and language for understanding and discussing _______.
  2. the human sexual response
  3. flirting behavior of adults
  4. female reproductive anatomy
  5. the sexual history of adults

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: Their insistence on studying the physiology of human sexual response laid the foundation for an enhanced understanding human sexuality.

 

  1. In the 1970s, Dr. Helen Singer Kaplan proposed a theory of human sexuality in which she claimed that there were three stages of sexual response. What were the three stages?
  2. touching, feeling, responding
  3. erection, ejaculation, loss of erection
  4. desire, excitement, orgasm
  5. increased heart rate, orgasm, decreased heart rate

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: Kaplan departed from the four-stage model proposed by Masters and Johnson, and posited that sexual desire was the first component of human sexual response.

 

  1. In contrast to the work of Masters and Johnson, the “new” view of sexual response posited that the sexual responses and feelings of women are different from those of men. According to this theory, what are some of the factors that must be taken into account in order to better understand women’s sexual responses?
  2. a woman’s age and level of education
  3. a woman’s occupation and level of work-related stress
  4. the relationship in which the sexual behavior takes place, as well as cultural and economic factors
  5. the number of children in the household, and their ages and genders

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: The proponents of the “new” view believed that Masters and Johnson’s theory did not give sufficient consideration to gender differences in human sexual responses. They posited that women’s sexual responses were influenced by a variety of factors and were far more complex than men’s sexual responses.

 

  1. The term _______ refers to methodology that determines the extent to which two variables are systematically related to each other.
  2. case study
  3. correlational research
  4. experiment
  5. observational research

 

Answer: B

difficulty: 1

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: The term correlation establishes that two variables are related to each other in some way.

 

  1. A positive correlation indicates that _______.
  2. we can predict that two variables will change in the same direction
  3. the variables move predictably in opposite directions
  4. no consistent relationship exists between the two variables
  5. one variable causes a change in the other variable

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: When two variables are expected to change in the same direction, they are said to be positively correlated.

 

  1. Which of the following describes a negative correlation?
  2. two variables will predictably change in the same direction
  3. two variables move predictably in opposite directions
  4. no consistent relationship exists between the two variables
  5. one variable causes a change in the other variable

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: When two variables are expected to change in opposite directions, they are said to be negatively correlated.

 

  1. Correlational research is used so often as a method of studying human sexuality because _______.
  2. researchers typically cannot control people’s sexual behaviors as would be necessary in an experiment
  3. it almost always allows researchers to determine if one variable causes another variable
  4. it provides researchers with an easy way to test new theories of human sexuality
  5. it allows researchers to take a large number of unrelated variables and figure out how to connect them to each other

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: In order to establish causality between two variables, control must be exerted over as many relevant variables as possible. Such control, as is required in an experiment, is typically not possible when dealing with human sexual behavior. Therefore, correlational research is commonly used in human sexuality research.

  1. Which research method is used to determine cause-and-effect relationships among variables?
  2. the case study method
  3. correlational research

c.the experimental method

  1. observational research

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 27

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: Because control of key variables is a necessary component in experimentation, the experimental method affords a greater opportunity for establishing causality than other methods commonly used in human sexuality research.

 

  1. The action performed on or by a group in an experiment is referred to as a _______.
  2. treatment
  3. dependent variable
  4. positive correlation
  5. negative correlation

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 28

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: An experiment is a research method in which the sample is divided into two evenly matched groups, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group receives the treatment.

 

  1. Roland is a participant in an experiment and was assigned to a group that receives the treatment. Roland is in the _______ group.
  2. control
  3. experimental
  4. independent
  5. dependent

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 28

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: In an experiment, the experimental group is the one that receives the treatment.

 

  1. Deneichia is a participant in an experiment and was assigned to a group that does not receive the treatment. Deneichia is in the _______ group.
  2. control
  3. experimental
  4. independent
  5. dependent

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 28

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: In an experiment, the group that does not receive the treatment is the control group.

 

  1. The variable of interest in an experiment that is allowed to change between or among groups while all other variables are held constant is referred to as the _______ variable.
  2. control
  3. experimental
  4. independent
  5. dependent

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 28

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Rationale: An experiment is a methodology that allows researchers to establish causality between variables. In order to do this the independent variable is allowed to change and the dependent variable remains constant.

 

  1. In an experiment the treatment administered is the _______variable and the resulting behavior is the _______ variable.
  2. control; experimental
  3. experimental; dependent
  4. independent; dependent
  5. dependent; independent

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 28

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: An experiment allows researchers to establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables. The cause, or the independent variable, is the treatment administered, and the effect, or the dependent variable.

 

  1. Which of the following is an ethical safeguard in sexuality research?
  2. Researchers must maintain their objectivity.
  3. Researchers must treat each participant differently.
  4. Researchers must never release the results of their research.
  5. Researchers must protect participants from all types of harm.

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 29-30

Topic: Ethics and Sexuality Research

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: It is unethical to subject participants to any type of harm during a research study.

  1. Agreeing to participate in a research study only after having been provided with complete and accurate information about what to expect in the study is referred to as _______.
  2. a research contract
  3. debriefing
  4. a confidentiality agreement
  5. informed consent

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 30

Topic: Ethics and Sexuality Research

Skill: Conceptual

 

Rationale: In order to conduct ethical research, participants must be provided with all information relevant information in advance of the study. This ensures that the individual is able to make an informed decision about whether to participate; such agreement constitutes informed consent.

 

  1. At the end of Lauren’s participation in a research study, the researcher explains the goals and procedures of the study to her, and gives her an opportunity to ask questions or make comments about her experience. This example illustrates the concept of _______.
  2. informed consent
  3. debriefing
  4. confidentiality
  5. protection from harm

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 31

Topic: Ethics and Sexuality Research

Skill: Application

 

Rationale: The guidelines for conducting ethical research compel the researcher to explain the goals and procedures of the study to participants at the conclusion of the project. This includes the opportunity for participants to ask questions or make comments about their experiences.

 

TRUE-FALSE

 

  1. Human sexuality is a complex area of study that focuses on all aspects of humans as sexual beings.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 4

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

 

  1. Sexual morals are a person’s unique foundation of knowledge, attitudes, and actions relating to who he or she is as a sexual being.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 4

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

 

  1. From infancy through old age, human beings have the capacity to experience both physical and emotional sexual feelings.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 5

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. The term gender identity refers to a person’s self-concept as a man or as a woman.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 6

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. Sexual orientation refers to what how much a person likes sex.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 6

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. The term sex refers only to heterosexual intercourse.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 7

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. Students who complete a human sexuality course have been shown to be less likely to believe common rape myths such as “most rapes are committed by strangers.”

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 9

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

  1. Abstinence-only sex education programs teach teens about contraception and sexually transmitted infections.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 9

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. Early sexual experiences may lead to expectations and conclusions about sexual behavior that are incorrect.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 13

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. China is one country that is not concerned about the growing public health issues of sexually transmitted infections.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 14

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. Defining a person as sexually normal or as sexually abnormal is very easy to do.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 15

Topic Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. Sexual health refers to a wide range of physical, psychological, and emotional issues that relate to a person’s sexuality.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 15

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. Research reveals that parents who took a human sexuality course were more likely to use correct terminology when discussing sexuality with their children.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 16

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. Sexuality researchers must be trained to avoid introducing their own biased attitudes into a research study.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 19

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. According to the textbook, the most common form of sexual research is the survey.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 19

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. The use of telephone interviews in human sexuality research is a good way to provide both anonymity and flexibility in questioning.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

  1. The term sample refers to the entire group of people being studied in a survey.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. The best way to ensure a representative sample would be to select respondents randomly from the entire population of interest.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. People who volunteer to participate in sexuality research projects are no different than people who do not volunteer to participate.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 22

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. When social scientists engage in observational research, they use methods that are systematic and organized in order to obtain the most accurate data possible.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 22

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

  1. Surveys about people’s sexual behaviors that are published in popular magazines provide accurate information because they are based on real scientific findings.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 23

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

22. Masters and Johnson believed that in order to understand human sexuality, researchers must study physical responses to sexual stimuli.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 24

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

23. Correlational research is used to determine the extent to which two variables are related to each other.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

24. The relationship between the amount of time a person studies and grades earned is an example of a positive correlation.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

25. Correlational research can reveal cause-and-effect relationships.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 27

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

26. The experimental method of research can determine cause-and-effect relationships.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 27

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

27. The dependent variable is the action performed on or by a group in an experiment.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 28

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. The experimental group is also known as the comparison group.

 

Answer: False

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 28

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

29. One potential drawback to the experimental method is that people are likely to behave differently in an artificial setting.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 29

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: conceptual

 

30. Research participants must be aware that they are free to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 31

Topic: Ethics and Sexuality Research

Skill: Factual

31. Research participants must be guaranteed that the results of their participation will be kept in confidence.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 31

Topic: Ethics and Sexuality research

Skill: Factual

32. During debriefing, researchers provide participants with an opportunity to ask questions about the study.

 

Answer: True

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 31

Topic: Ethics and Sexuality Research

Skill: Application

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Knowing who you are and what you want and don’t want are components of one’s ________.

 

Answer: personal sexual philosophy

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 4

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. In 1942, advocates of family planning and sexual satisfaction formed a group known as ________.

 

Answer: Planned Parenthood Federation of America

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: Inside Front Cover

Topic: Historical Perspectives

Skill: Factual

 

  1. A person’s concept of himself or herself as a man or a woman is referred to as ________.

 

Answer: gender identity

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 6

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

4.The term ________ refers to whether an individual is romantically, emotionally, and sexually attracted to members of the same sex or to members of the opposite sex.

 

Answer: sexual orientation

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 6

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. Research has demonstrated that students who take ________ courses increase their comfort level with various diverse groups, such as those with gay, lesbian, and bisexual orientations.

 

Answer: human sexuality

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 13

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

  1. In 2003, the ________ government created a website for the country called You and Me, with the intention of engaging and informing youth on a variety of sexual topics.

 

Answer: Chinese

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 14

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. The term ________ refers to a wide range of physical, psychological, and emotional issues relating to sexuality.

 

Answer: sexual health

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 15

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

  1. Large-scale ________ of sexual behavior and attitudes were pioneered by Dr. Alfred Kinsey in the 1940s.

 

Answer: surveys

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 19

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. The entire group of people to which the researcher is attempting to apply a study’s findings is referred to as the ________.

 

Answer: target population

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 20

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. ________is an effect that can occur when members of a target population are allowed to volunteer to participate in a research study.

 

Answer: Self-selection bias

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 22

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. ________ believed that the only method by which human sexual behavior could be obtained was direct systematic observation and physiological measurements of men and women in all stages of sexual response.

 

Answer: Masters and Johnson

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 24

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. A ________ correlation allows researchers to predict that two variables will change together in the same direction.

 

Answer: positive

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

 

  1. The ________ research method allows researchers to determine cause-and-effect relationships.

 

Answer: experimental

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 27

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: conceptual

 

  1. In an experiment, the group receiving no treatment is called the ________.

 

Answer: control group

Difficulty: 1

Page ref: 28

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

  1. Agreeing to participate in an experiment only after having been provided with complete and accurate information about what to expect in the study is referred to as ________.

 

Answer: informed consent

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 30

Topic: Ethics and Sexuality Research

Skill: Factual

 

 

ESSAY

  1. Define and explain the difference between the terms gender identity and sexual orientation. Provide examples of each.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 6

Topic: Experiencing Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Responses should consider:
  • Perception of one’s sexuality is a major component of one’s self-identity.
  • Gender identity is one’s concept of oneself as a man or a woman.
  • Gender identity is one of the most important components of one’s sexual identity.
  • Most people are clear about whether they are men or women.
  • Sexual orientation is one component of one’s sexual self.
  • Some people are confused about their sexual orientation.
  • Sexual orientation refers to whether one is attracted to members of the same sex or to members of the opposite sex.
  • Sexual orientation refers to sexual, romantic, and emotional attraction.

 

  1. Discuss two reasons why studies have shown that abstinence-only sex education programs have failed to reduce rates of sexual activity, unintended pregnancy, or sexually-transmitted infections among teens.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page ref: 9-10

Topic: Understanding Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Responses should consider:

  • Abstinence-only sex education has focused on instructing students not to have sex at all.
  • Abstinence-only sex education teaches that young people should wait until marriage to become sexually active.
  • Such education includes the assumption that if teens wait until marriage to have sex, they have no need for information about how to avoid unwanted pregnancy or how to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted infections.
  • Such programs teach that the only way to avoid unwanted pregnancy or STIs is not to have sex.
  • Such programs teach that the only acceptable type of sexual relationship is a monogamous marriage in which both partners are faithful to one another.
  • Such programs teach that sexual activity outside of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological and physical effects.
  • It’s been found that when school districts attempt to implement abstinence-only sex education programs, the outcome has been the dissemination of inaccurate information.
  • Such programs fail to give young people the information they need to make responsible choices.
  • It’s likely that students taking a college course in human sexuality have not received correct or adequate sexual information during their teenage years.

 

  1. Discuss sex education in China. Provide two reasons that have prompted China’s newfound interest in sex education.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 14

Topic: Understanding human Sexuality

Skill: Factual

 

Responses should consider:

  • China has traditionally placed taboos on sex education.
  • These taboos include discussing sex.
  • Nearly half of all college students in China have received no education in school about sexual behavior and health.
  • As China modernizes, more adolescents are becoming sexually active at earlier ages.
  • This has led to a dramatic rise in unplanned pregnancy and the spread of STIs.
  • In acknowledgment of rising rates of unplanned pregnancy and STIs China has begun to educate young people about sex and sexual health.
  • The Chinese government approved a website called You and Me, the intention of which was to inform young people about a variety of sexual topics.
  • The website places particular emphasis on such subjects as HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, and unsafe abortion practices.
  • Through the website, Chinese youth are able to read about sexuality and to communicate with each other about sexual matters.
  • China is also becoming open to research about sexuality.
  • The World Health Organization funded a large-scale study in the mid-2000s to establish a comprehensive sex education program in a small Chinese town near Shanghai. Participants were unmarried people between the ages of 15 and 24.
  • Topics included contraception, STIs, and healthy sexual behaviors.
  • As a result of the study, participants engaged in less coercive sexual behavior and were more likely to use condoms and other forms of contraception.
  • They were also less likely to experience unwanted pregnancies.

 

  1. Define and describe the survey method. Identify two types of surveys and discuss the rationale for using each of these methods.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 19-21

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Conceptual

 

Responses should consider:

  • The most common form of sexual research methodology is the survey.
  • A survey is the process of collecting information from volunteer respondents.
  • The purpose of a survey is to explain, describe, or compare people’s knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
  • Large-scale surveys were first done by Kinsey in the 1940s.
  • The written questionnaire offers the greatest anonymity and privacy for the respondent and may produce more honest responses.
  • The face-to-face interview allows the interviewer to establish a friendly, trusting rapport with the participants, and to have more flexibility in asking planned and follow-up questions.
  • This may lead to greater honesty in the answers.
  • A telephone survey allows for anonymity and flexibility in questioning.
  • In doing a telephone survey, one runs the risk that some people may not take telephone interviews seriously.
  • They may also be annoyed at the intrusion into their lives. If so, the completeness or accuracy of their answers might be in doubt.
  • The widespread use of cell phones can reduce the reliability and validity of the telephone survey method.
  • Internet surveys offer the opportunity for a large number of responses from a wide geographical area in a relatively short time span.
  • Internet surveys pose concerns about ethics and validity.
  • For example, are Internet surveys truly confidential? Are the participants of legal age? Are they whom they claim to be in regard to age, gender, attitudes, and experiences?
  • Does the Internet provide a non-representative, self-selected sample of participants?
  • What about people who don’t have computers or Internet access?

 

  1. Define the term correlational research. Identify and explain the three types of correlations. Provide examples of each.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 26-27

Topic: Methods Used for Studying Human Sexuality

Skill: Application

 

Responses should consider:

  • Correlational research is a scientific research methodology that determines the extent to which two variables are systematically related to each other.
  • This type of research is so common in human sexuality research because researchers typically cannot control people’s sexual behavior as would be necessary for an experiment.
  • Most studies conducted in the field of human sexuality use correlational research because researchers must usually take data that are already associated with their research participants and look for predictive links between them.
  • A positive correlation indicates that we can predict that two variables will change together in the same direction. An example is shoe size and height; as one increases, the other does, as well.
  • A negative correlation tells us that the variables move predictably in the opposite direction. An example is amount of alcohol consumed and driving ability; as one increases the other decreases.
  • No correlation means that there is no consistent, predictable relationship between two variables, such as the relationship between shoe size and driving ability.

 

  1. Identify and explain three guidelines that researchers conducting studies in human sexuality are required to adhere to in order to ensure the ethical treatment of human participants.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page ref: 29-31

Topic: Ethics and Sexuality Research

Skill: Factual

 

Responses should consider:

  • Protection from harm: researchers have to protect their subjects from all physical and psychological harm.
  • This includes present and future harm.
  • Informed consent: researchers must explain to potential participants what the study is about, what procedures will be used, and what, if any, possible risks are involved.
  • They must assure participants that the records are to be kept confidential. If that’s not possible, they should explain who will have access to the records and why.
  • They should inform participants in sexual research if sensitive or potentially embarrassing topics will be part of the study.
  • This allows the potential participants to make informed choices; if they agree to participate this is called informed consent.
  • If participants are minors, consent must be obtained from parents or guardians.
  • Freedom to withdraw; participants have to understand that they have the freedom to withdraw their participation at any time.
  • Some people might think that if they agreed to participate they have to see it through to the end; this is not so.
  • If participants receive payment, if they are made to feel that their completion of the study is required for payment, this may produce an unethical inducement to avoid withdrawing if they wish to do so. A possible solution is to pay participants at the beginning of each session “just for showing up.”
  • Debriefing: this occurs after participants have completed their roles in the study.
  • This is when researchers explain the goals and procedures of the study to participants.
  • This gives participants the opportunity to ask questions or make comments about their experiences.
  • If deception was employed in any way during the study, participants must be fully counseled about the form of the deception and why it was necessary. If so, participants should be assured that they were not foolish in any way to have been deceived.
  • Debriefing allows researchers to determine if any lingering negative aftereffects from the study should be addressed with the participants.
  • During debriefing, researchers may reassure participants of the confidentiality of the data and provide them with phone numbers of email addresses for further contact, if needed.
  • Confidentiality: all results from research participants must be kept in complete confidence unless participants have given permission to share their data with other specific individuals.
  • Findings must be reported in such a way that individual data cannot be identified.
  • Researchers must develop methods of guarding against any possible breach of confidentiality before they begin to gather data.
  • The widespread use of computer databases and electronic storage and transfer of information have created challenges for maintaining the confidentiality of research data.

human sexuality 3rd edition hock test bank