Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application 8th edition Marquis, Huston Test Bank

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  • Published: 2014
  • ISBN-10: 1451192819
  • ISBN-13: 978-1451192810

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leadership roles and management functions in nursing 8th edition test bank

Chapter 1

1. What statement is true regarding decision making?

A) It is an analysis of a situation

B) It is closely related to evaluation

C) It involves choosing between courses of action

D) It is dependent upon finding the cause of a problem

Ans: C

Feedback:

Decision making is a complex cognitive process often defined as choosing a particular

course of action. Problem solving is part of decision making and is a systematic process

that focuses on analyzing a difficult situation. Critical thinking, sometimes referred to as

reflective thinking, is related to evaluation and has a broader scope than decision

making and problem solving.

2. What is a weakness of the traditional problem-solving model?

A) Its need for implementation time

B) Its lack of a step requiring evaluation of results

C) Its failure to gather sufficient data

D) Its failure to evaluate alternatives

Ans: A

Feedback:

The traditional problem-solving model is less effective when time constraints are a

consideration. Decision making can occur without the full analysis required in problem

solving. Because problem solving attempts to identify the root problem in situations,

much time and energy are spent on identifying the real problem.

3. Which of the following statements is true regarding decision making?

A) Scientific methods provide identical decisions by different individuals for the

same problems

B) Decisions are greatly influenced by each person’s value system

C) Personal beliefs can be adjusted for when the scientific approach to problem

solving is used

D) Past experience has little to do with the quality of the decision

Ans: B

Feedback:

Values, life experience, individual preference, and individual ways of thinking will

influence a person’s decision making. No matter how objective the criteria will be, value

judgments will always play a part in a person’s decision making, either consciously or

subconsciously.

Page 2

4. What influences the quality of a decision most often?

A) The decision maker’s immediate superior

B) The type of decision that needs to be made

C) Questions asked and alternatives generated

D) The time of day the decision is made

Ans: C

Feedback:

The greater the number of alternatives that can be generated by the decision maker, the

better the final decision will be. The alternatives generated and the final choices are

limited by each person’s value system.

5. What does knowledge about good decision making lead one to believe?

A) Good decision makers are usually right-brain, intuitive thinkers

B) Effective decision makers are sensitive to the situation and to others

C) Good decisions are usually made by left-brain, logical thinkers

D) Good decision making requires analytical rather than creative processes

Ans: B

Feedback:

Good decision makers seem to have antennae that make them particularly sensitive to

other people and situations. Left-brain thinkers are typically better at processing

language, logic, numbers, and sequential ordering, whereas right-brain thinkers excel at

nonverbal ideation and holistic synthesizing.

6. What is the best definition of decision making?

A) The planning process of management

B) The evaluation phase of the executive role

C) One step in the problem-solving process

D) Required to justify the need for scarce items

Ans: C

Feedback:

Decision making is a complex, cognitive process often defined as choosing a particular

course of action. Decision making, one step in the problem-solving process, is an

important task that relies heavily on critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills.

Page 3

7. If decision making is triggered by a problem with what does it end?

A) An alternative problem

B) A chosen course of action

C) An action that guarantees success

D) A restatement of the solution

Ans: B

Feedback:

A decision is made when a course of action has been chosen. Problem solving is part of

decision making and is a systematic process that focuses on analyzing a difficult

situation. Problem solving always includes a decision-making step.

8. Why do our values often cause personal conflict in decision making?

A) Some values are not realistic or healthy

B) Not all values are of equal worth

C) Our values remain unchanged over time

D) Our values often collide with one another

Ans: D

Feedback:

Values, life experience, individual preference, and individual ways of thinking will

influence a person’s decision making. No matter how objective the criteria will be, value

judgments will always play a part in a person’s decision making, either consciously or

subconsciously.

9. Which statement is true concerning critical thinking?

A) It is a simple approach to decision making

B) It is narrower in scope than decision making

C) It requires reasoning and creative analysis

D) It is a synonym for the problem-solving process

Ans: C

Feedback:

Critical thinking has a broader scope than decision making and problem solving. It is

sometimes referred to as reflective thinking. Critical thinking also involves reflecting

upon the meaning of statements, examining the offered evidence and reasoning, and

forming judgments about facts.

Page 4

10. How do administrative man managers make the majority of their decisions?

A) After gathering all the facts

B) In a manner good enough to solve the problem

C) In a rational, logical manner

D) After generating all the alternatives possible

Ans: B

Feedback:

Many managers make decisions that are just ìgood enoughî because of lack of time,

energy, or creativity to generate a number of alternatives. This is also called

ìsatisficing.î Most people make decisions too quickly and fail to systematically examine

a problem or its alternatives for solution.

11. What needs to be considered in evaluating the quality of one’s decisions?

A) Is evaluation necessary when using a good decision-making model?

B) Can evaluation be eliminated if the problem is resolved?

C) Will the effectiveness of the decision maker be supported?

D) Will the evaluation be helpful in increasing one’s decision-making skills?

Ans: D

Feedback:

The evaluation phase is necessary to find out more about one’s ability as a decision

maker and to find out where the decision making was faulty.

12. Which statement concerning the role of the powerful in organizational decision making

is true?

A) They exert little influence on decisions that are made

B) They make decisions made that are in congruence with their own values

C) They allow others to make the decisions however they wish

D) They make all the important decisions with consideration to others

Ans: B

Feedback:

Not only does the preference of the powerful influence decisions of others in the

organization, but the powerful are also able to inhibit the preferences of the less

powerful. Powerful people in organizations are more likely to have decisions made that

are congruent with their own preferences and values.

Page 5

13. One of the nurses on the unit said, ìMale patients have a low threshold for pain.î This is

an example of what type of illogical thinking?

A) Affirming the consequences

B) Arguing from analogy

C) Deductive reasoning

D) Overgeneralizing

Ans: D

Feedback:

This type of ìcrookedî thinking occurs when one believes that because A has a particular

characteristic, every other A also has the same characteristic. This kind of thinking is

exemplified when stereotypical statements are used to justify arguments and decisions.

14. What effect of organizational power on decision making is often reflected in the

tendency of staff?

A) Making decisions independent of organizational values

B) Not trusting others to decide

C) Desiring personal power

D) Having private beliefs that are separate from corporate ones

Ans: D

Feedback:

The ability of the powerful to influence individual decision making in an organization

often requires adopting a private personality and an organizational personality.

15. What does a decision grid allow the decision maker to do?

A) Examine alternatives visually and compare each against the same criteria

B) Quantify information

C) Plot a decision over time

D) Predict when events must take place to complete a project on time

Ans: A

Feedback:

A decision grid allows one to visually examine the alternatives and compare each

against the same criteria. Although any criteria may be selected, the same criteria are

used to analyze each alternative.

Page 6

16. What statement regarding management decision-making aides is true?

A) They are subject to human error

B) They ensure good decision making

C) They eliminate uncertainty and risk

D) They tend to save management time

Ans: A

Feedback:

Management decision-making aides are subject to human error. Some of these aides

encourage analytical thinking, others are designed to increase intuitive reasoning, and a

few encourage the use of both hemispheres of the brain. Despite the helpfulness of these

tools, there is a strong tendency for managers to favor first impressions when making a

decision, and a second tendency, called confirmation biases, often follows.

17. What is heuristics?

A) Discrete, unconscious process to allow individuals to solve problems quickly

B) Set of rules to encourage learners to discover solutions for themselves

C) Formal process and structure in the decision-making process

D) Trial-and-error method or rules-of-thumb approach

Ans: A

Feedback:

Most individuals rely on discrete, often unconscious processes known as heuristics,

which allows them to solve problems more quickly and to build upon experiences they

have gained in their lives. Thus, heuristics use trial-and-error methods or a rules-ofthumb

approach, rather than set rules, and in doing so, encourages learners to discover

solutions for themselves.

18. Which statement is true regarding an economic man style manager?

A) Lacks complete knowledge and generates few alternatives

B) Makes decisions that may not be ideal but result in solutions that have an adequate

outcome

C) Makes most management decisions using the administrative man model of

decision making

D) These managers gather as much information as possible and generate many

alternatives

Ans: D

Feedback:

Economic managers gather as much information as possible and generate many

alternatives. Most management decisions are made by using the administrative man

model of decision making. The administrative man never has complete knowledge and

generates fewer alternatives.

Page 7

19. What is a characteristic of a left-brain thinker?

A) Creative

B) Intuitive

C) Analytical

D) Holistic

Ans: C

Feedback:

Analytical, linear, left-brain thinkers process information differently from creative,

intuitive, right-brain thinkers. Left-brain thinkers are typically better at processing

language, logic, numbers, and sequential ordering, whereas right-brain thinkers excel at

nonverbal ideation and holistic synthesizing.

20. What type of brain dominance creates a management style that is highly organized and

detail oriented?

A) Upper left brain

B) Upper right brain

C) Lower left brain

D) Lower right brain

Ans: C

Feedback:

Individuals with lower-left-brain dominance are highly organized and detail oriented

and individuals with upper-left-brain dominance truly are analytical thinkers who like

working with factual data and numbers. These individuals deal with problems in a

logical and rational way. Individuals with upper-right-brain dominance are big picture

thinkers who look for hidden possibilities and are futuristic in their thinking. Individuals

with lower-right-brain dominance experience facts and problem solve in a more

emotional way than the other three types.

21. Which problem-solving learning strategy provides the learner with the most realistic,

risk-free learning environment?

A) Case studies

B) Simulation

C) Problem-based learning (PBL)

D) Grand rounds

Ans: B

Feedback:

Simulation provides learners opportunities for problem solving that have little or no risk

to patients or to organizational performance while providing models, either mechanical

or live, to provide experiences for the learner. While the other options provide learning

opportunities that include problem solving, simulation is the most realistic while also

being low risk.

Page 8

22. Which statement demonstrates a characteristic of a critical thinker? Select all that apply.

A) ìSince that didn’t work effectively, let’s try something different.î

B) ìThe solution has to be something the patient is willing to do.î

C) ìI’ll talk to the patient’s primary care giver about the problem.î

D) ìMaybe there is no new solution to this particular problem.î

Ans: A, B, C

Feedback:

A critical thinker displays persistence, empathy, and assertiveness. The remaining

options reflect limited thinking and an inability to think outside the box.

23. What is the value of using a structured approach to problem solving for the novice

nurse?

A) Facilitates effective time management

B) Supports the acquisition of clinical reasoning

C) Supplements the orientation process

D) Encourages professional autonomy

Ans: B

Feedback:

A structured approach to problem solving and decision making increases clinical

reasoning and is the best way to learn how to make quality decisions because it

eliminates trial and error and focuses the learning on a proven process. This is

particularly helpful to the novice nurse with limited clinical experience and intuition.

The other options are outcomes of the possession of critical thinking skills and clinical

reasoning.

24. Which situation is characteristic of the weakness of the nursing process?

A) The frequent absence of well-written patience-focused objectives

B) The confusion created by the existence of numerous nursing diagnoses

C) The ever-increasing need for effective assessment skills required of the nurse

D) The amount of nursing staff required to implement the patients’ plans of care

Ans: A

Feedback:

The weakness of the nursing process, like the traditional problem-solving model, is in

not requiring clearly stated objectives. Goals should be clearly stated in the planning

phase of the process, but this step is frequently omitted or obscured. While the

remaining options relate to the nursing process, they are not directly a result of the

process itself.

Page 9

25. What is the advantage of using a payoff table when applicable?

A) It assures the correct decision when dealing with financial situations

B) It is very helpful when quantitative information about the topic is available

C) It assists in the visualization of the available historic and current data

D) It is easy to construct even for the novice decision maker

Ans: C

Feedback:

Payoff tables do not guarantee that a correct decision will be made, but they assist in

visualizing data. While it does lend itself to the use of quantitative data that are not its

strength, the table may not be difficult to construct that is not its strength since it is

dependent on the inclusion of accurate data and effective evaluation of that data.

leadership roles and management functions in nursing 8th edition test bank

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Table of Contents = 25 Chapters

Unit 1: A New Approach To Leadership and Management	 
Chapter 1: Decision Making, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinking: Requisites 
for Successful Leadership and Management	
	Decision Making, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinking	
	Vicarious Learning to increase Problem Solving and Decision Making Skills	
	Theoretical Approaches to Problem Solving and Decision Making	
	Critical Elements in Problem Solving and Decision Making
	individual Variations in Decision Making	
	Overcoming individual Vulnerability in Decision Making	
	Decision Making in Organizations	
Chapter 2: Introduction to Management and Management Decision Making
	Historical Development of Management Theory	
	Management Decision-Making Technology	
	Pitfalls in Using Decision Making Tools	
	Management Functions 	
Chapter 3: Developing Leadership 	
	Differences Between Leadership and Management	
	Historical Development of Leadership Theory	
	Evolution of Leadership Theory
	Contemporary Theories of Leadership
	Leadership and Management for Nursing's Future
	Integrating Leadership and Management Skills
Unit 2: Foundation For Effective Leadership and Management
Chapter 4: Ethics, Law, and Advocacy
	Ethical Dilemmas
	Ethical Problem Solving and Decision Making
	Ethical Frameworks for Decision Making
	Principles of Ethical Reasoning
	Ana Code of Ethics and Professional Standards
	Ethical Dimensions in Leadership and Management
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Ethics
Chapter 5: Legal and Legislative Issues
	Sources of Law
	Types of Laws and Courts
	Legal Doctrines and the Practice of Nursing
	Professional Negligence
	Avoiding Malpractice Claims
	Extending The Liability
	Incident Reports
	Intentional Torts
	Other Legal Responsibilities of the Manager
	Legal Considerations of Managing a Diverse Workforce
	Professional Versus Institutional Licensure
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Legal and 
	Legislative Issues
Chapter 6: Patient, Subordinate, and Professional Advocacy
	Becoming an Advocate
	Patient Advocacy
	Subordinate Advocacy
	Professional Advocacy
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Advocacy
Unit 3: Roles and Functions in Planning
Chapter 7: The Planning Hierarchy and Strategic Planning
	Proactive Planning
	The Planning Hierarchy
	Vision and Mission Statements
	The Organization's Philosophy Statement
	Societal Philosophies and Values
	Individuals Philosophies and Values
	Goals and Objectives
	Policies and Procedures
	Rules
	Overcoming Barriers to Planning
	Strategic Planning in the Organization
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Planning
Chapter 8: Planned Change
	The Development of Change Theory
	Driving and Restraining Forces
	Resistance: The Expected Response To Change
	Planned Change As A Collaborative Process
	The Leader/Manager as a Role Model During Planned Change
	Organizational Aging: Change as a Means of Renewal
	Organizational Change Association with Nonlinear Dynamics
	Is the Profession of Nursing in Need of Renewal?
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Planned Change
Chapter 9: Time Management
	Three Basic Steps in Time Management
	 Managing Time at Work
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management 
	Functions in Time Management
Chapter 10: Fiscal Planning
	Basics of Budgets
	Steps in the Budgetary Process
	Types of Budgets
	Cost-Effectiveness as a Unit Manager's Goal
	Budgeting Methods
	Critical Pathways
	Healthcare Reimbursement
	The Managed Care Movement
	Driving and Restraining Forces for the Managed Care Movement
	The Future of Managed Care
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Fiscal Planning
Chapter 11: Career Development
	Justifications For Career Development
	Career Stages
	The Organization's Responsibility for Career Management
	Competency Assessment and Specialty Certification as Part of
	Career Management
	Long-Term Coaching
	The Structured Coaching interview
	Transfers
	Promotions
	The Employee's Responsibility for Career Planning
	Resume Preparation
	Preparing A Professional Portfolio
	Management Development
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions 
	in Career Development
	
Unit 4: Roles and Functions in Organizing
Chapter-12: Organizational Structure
	Organizational Theory
	Components of Organizational Structure
	Types of Organization Structures
	Decision Making Within the Organizational Hierarchy
	External Stakeholders
	Limitations of Organization Charts
	Organizational Culture
	Shared Governance: The Organizational Design of the 21st Century?
	Organizations and Magnet Status
	Committee Structure in An Organization
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management 
	Functions Associated with Organizational Structure
Chapter 13: Understanding Organizational, Political, and Personal Power
	Understanding Power
	The Authority-Power Gap
	Strategies For Building A Personal Power Base
	The Politics of Power
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions When Using 
	Authority and Power in Organizations
Chapter 14: Organizing Patient Care
	Modes of Organizing Patient Care
	Disease Management and Case Management
	Selecting The Optimum Mode of Organizing Patient Care
	Differentiated Nursing Practice
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Organizing 
	Patient Care
Unit 5: Roles and Functions in Staffing
Chapter 15: Preliminary Staffing Functions: Employee Recruitment, Selection, 
Placement, and Indoctrination	
	Planning For Staffing and Responding to Shortages	
	Recruitment	
	The Initial Contact
	Interviewing
	Selection
	Placement
	Indoctrination
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Preliminary 
	Staffing Responsibilities
Chapter 16: Meeting Staff Socialization and Educational Needs for Team Building
	 Socialization and Resocialization
	Clarifying Role Expectations Through Role Models, Preceptors, and Mentors
	Assistance in Meeting Role Demands
	Overcoming Motivational Deficiencies
	Employees With Unique Socialization Needs
	Staff Development
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Team Building 
	Through Socialization and Staff Education
Chapter 17: Staffing Needs and Scheduling Policies
	Unit Managers' Responsibilities in Meeting Staffing Needs
	Workload Measurement Tools
	The Relationship Between Nursing Care Hours, Staffing Mix, and 
	Quality of Care
	The Impact of Foreign Nurses and Generational Considerations on Staffing
	The Impact of a Shortage of Nursing Staff Upon Staffing
	Fiscal and Ethical Accountability for Staffing
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Staffing
Unit 6: Roles and Functions in Directing
Chapter 18: Creating a Motivating Climate
	Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation
	Motivational Theory
	Creating a Motivating Climate
	Strategies for Creating a Motivating Climate
	Professional Support Systems for the Manager
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Motivating
Chapter 19: Organizational, interpersonal, and Group Communication
	The Communication Process
	Variables Affecting Organizational Communication
	Organizational Communication Strategies
	Channels of Communication
	Communication Modes
	Written Communication Within The Organization
	Interpersonal Communication in A Multicultural Workplace
	Group Communication
	The Impact of Technology on Organizational Communication Confidentiality
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Organizational 
	and interpersonal Communication
Chapter 20: Delegation
	Common Delegation Errors
	Effective Delegating
	Delegation as a Function of Professional Nursing
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Delegation
Chapter 21: Managing Conflict
	The History of Conflict Management
	Categories of Conflict
	The Conflict Process
	Conflict Management	
	Managing Unit Conflict	
	Negotiation	
	Alternative Dispute Resolution
	Seeking Consensus
	Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Managing Conflict
Chapter 22: Understanding Collective Bargaining, Unionization, and Employment Laws
	Unions and Collective Bargaining
	Historical Perspective of Unionization in America
	American Nurses Association and Collective Bargaining
	Employee Motivation To Join Or Reject Unions	
	Union Organizing Strategies	
	Manager's Role During Union Organizing	
	Effective Labor-Management Relations
	Employment Legislation	
	The Occupational Health and Safety Act
	State Health Facilities Licensing Boards
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions
	in Working With Unions and Employment Laws
Chapter 23: Quality Control
	Defining Quality Health Care	
	Quality Control as a Process	
	The Development of Standards	
	Audits as a Quality Control Tool
	Total Quality Management/Toyota Production System
	Who Should Be involved in Quality Control
	External Impacts on Quality Control
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Quality Control
Chapter 24: Performance Appraisal
	Using the Performance Appraisal to Motivate Employees
	Strategies to Ensure Accuracy and Fairness in the Performance Appraisal
	Performance Appraisal Tools
	Planning the Appraisal interview
	Overcoming Appraisal interview Difficulties
	Performance Management
	Coaching: A Mechanism For informal Performance Appraisal
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions 
	in Conducting Performance Appraisals
Chapter 25: Problem Employees: Rule Breakers, Marginal 
	Employees, and the Chemically or Mentally Impaired	
	Constructive Versus Destructive Discipline	
	Self-Discipline and Group Norms	
	Fair and Effective Rules	
	Discipline as a Progressive Process	
	Disciplinary Strategies for the Nurse-Manager	
	Grievance Procedures	
	Disciplining the Unionized Employee	
	The Marginal Employee	
	The Chemically or Mentally Impaired Employee
	Integrating Leadership Roles and Management Functions Through Discipline
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