Life-Span Development 15th edition Santrock Test Bank

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  • Published: 2014
  • ISBN-13: 978-1259343001
  • ISBN-10: 1259343006

Description

Life-Span Development Santrock 15th edition Test Bank

Chapter 01 Introduction

Multiple Choice Questions
1.

Development can be defined as the pattern of movement or change that:
A.

begins at childhood and continues until adulthood.
B.

begins at conception and continues until adulthood.
C.

begins at birth and continues through the human life span.
D.

begins at conception and continues through the human life span.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Studying life-span development

2.

The _____ approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, especially during infancy, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age.
A.

prescriptive
B.

constructivist
C.

traditional
D.

evolutionary
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

3.

When taking his psychology class, Professor Sharma emphasizes that developmental change occurs throughout adulthood as well as childhood. Professor Sharma is taking a(n) _____ approach to developmental change.
A.

life-span
B.

evolutionary
C.

normative
D.

constructivist
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

4.

Two developmental psychologists are having a conversation. One believes in the traditional approach of developmental change, whereas the other believes in the life-span approach. The two are most likely differ on:
A.

whether developmental change starts at birth or at conception.
B.

whether the tabula rasa or the innate goodness positions were correct.
C.

whether most developmental change occurs from birth to adolescence or throughout adulthood as well as childhood.
D.

whether the earlier theorists, such as Freud and Jung, were correct or whether the later theorists such as Piaget and Skinner were correct about developmental change.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

5.

On your first day of class, Professor Red-Elk claims that for too long we have focused on the development of young children, especially infants. She argues that the development of adults and elderly people is just as important. This professor is articulating a(n) _____ approach.
A.

evolutionary
B.

constructivist
C.

normative
D.

life-span
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

6.

The maximum life span of humans:
A.

has increased over time.
B.

has not changed since the beginning of recorded history.
C.

has matched their life expectancy in recent times.
D.

is about 65 years as the first decade of the twenty-first century draws to a close.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

7.

Life expectancy in the United States has increased by _____ years during the twentieth century.
A.

20
B.

10
C.

30
D.

50
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

8.

The life expectancy in the United States is currently:
A.

60 years.
B.

78 years.
C.

85 years.
D.

53 years.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

9.

If you subscribe to Paul Baltes’ perspective of life-span development, which of the following statements would you NOT agree with?
A.

Development is lifelong
B.

Development is unidirectional
C.

Development is plastic
D.

Development is contextual
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

10.

The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:
A.

plastic.
B.

contextual.
C.

multidimensional.
D.

lifelong.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

11.

Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:
A.

lifelong.
B.

contextual.
C.

multidimensional.
D.

plastic.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

12.

Many individuals become wiser as they age, but their performance on tasks that require speed in processing information starts to decline. This illustrates how throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink, or how development is:
A.

plastic.
B.

contextual.
C.

multidisciplinary.
D.

multidirectional.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

13.

_____ means the capacity for change.
A.

Elasticity
B.

Plasticity
C.

Contextuality
D.

Tenacity
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

14.

Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old and is currently enrolled in a college algebra course. He is pleasantly surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not taking a formal math class for over 30 years. Researchers would consider this an instance that illustrates how development is:
A.

plastic.
B.

multidisciplinary.
C.

lifelong.
D.

contextual.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

15.

“You can’t teach an old dog new tricks”. This old saying refutes Paul Baltes’ life-span perspective that views development as being:
A.

plastic.
B.

multidisciplinary.
C.

lifelong.
D.

contextual.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

16.

Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all share an interest in unlocking the mysteries of development through the life span. This indicates how development is:
A.

multidirectional.
B.

plastic.
C.

multidisciplinary.
D.

multidimensional.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

17.

“Individuals are changing beings in a changing world”. Which characteristic of development is reflected in this statement?
A.

Development is multidisciplinary
B.

Development is contextual
C.

Development is multidimensional
D.

Development is multidirectional
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

18.

_____ include biological processes such as puberty and menopause. They also include sociocultural, environmental processes such as beginning formal education and retirement.
A.

Normative age-graded influences
B.

Normative history-graded influences
C.

Normative life events
D.

Nonnormative life events
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

19.

By age 51, most women enter menopause. This is an example of how a biological process can exert a _____ influence on development.
A.

normative history-graded
B.

nonnormative multidirectional
C.

normative age-graded
D.

nonnormative age-graded
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

20.

Influences that generally affect a generation (for example, the effect of the Vietnam war on the baby boomers) are considered _____ influences.
A.

nonnormative multidirectional
B.

normative age-graded
C.

nonnormative age-graded
D.

normative history-graded
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

21.

The cultural makeup of the U.S. population has changed over the past few years due to immigration and other factors. Such long-term changes in the genetic and cultural makeup of a population are part of:
A.

nonnormative multidirectional change.
B.

normative historical change.
C.

nonnormative life events.
D.

nonnormative demographic change.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

22.

When she was a child, Anna’s home was wrecked by a tornado and her neighbor was killed. More than 30 years later, she is still terrified of storms. This is an example of how a ____ event can influence a person’s development.
A.

normative age-graded
B.

normative generational
C.

nonnormative life
D.

normative history-graded
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

23.

Nonnormative life events:
A.

do not happen to all people.
B.

happen to younger children, but not to older adults.
C.

are common to people of a particular generation.
D.

influence the cultural makeup of a population.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

24.

Keith has won the lottery and now has more money than he ever thought. This incident will likely affect Keith’s development and is an example of a:
A.

normative history-graded influence.
B.

nonnormative life event.
C.

nonnormative history-graded influence.
D.

normative age-graded influence.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

25.

Agatha is 83 years old. According to Baltes and his colleagues, _____ and _____ in her capacities will take center stage.
A.

growth; maintenance
B.

maintenance; regulation of loss
C.

regulation of loss; augmentation
D.

growth; regulation of loss
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

26.

_____ encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.
A.

Culture
B.

Genotype
C.

Phenotype
D.

Ethnocentricity
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Contemporary concerns

27.

Dr. Wilman is researching the place women occupy in families in Japan and the U.S. Dr. Wilman is conducting a(n) _____ study.
A.

longitudinal
B.

ethnocentric
C.

cross-cultural
D.

decentralized
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Contemporary concerns

28.

Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to:
A.

the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.
B.

a person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
C.

the degree to which development is similar or universal across cultures.
D.

a social label placed on a similar group of people based on their heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Contemporary concerns

29.

_____ is(are) a national government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
A.

Social policy
B.

Generational policy
C.

Cultural legislation
D.

Equity policy
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Contemporary concerns

30.

Going by current trends, 86-year-old Matilda is likely to be living:
A.

with a spouse.
B.

with children.
C.

by herself.
D.

with grandchildren.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Contemporary concerns

31.

Compared with earlier decades, U.S. adults today are:
A.

more likely to be married.
B.

more likely to be childless.
C.

less likely to be living alone.
D.

less likely to need social relationships and support.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Contemporary concerns

32.

Two concepts that help provide a framework for describing and understanding an individual’s development are:
A.

developmental attributes and behavior.
B.

developmental characteristics and traits.
C.

developmental challenges and opportunities.
D.

developmental processes and periods.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Biological processes

33.

Changes in motor skills, nutrition, exercise, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline are all examples of _____ processes that affect development.
A.

cognitive
B.

biological
C.

socioemotional
D.

cultural
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Biological processes

34.

_____ processes refer to changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.
A.

Cognitive
B.

Biological
C.

Socioemotional
D.

Cultural
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Cognitive processes

35.

_____ processes involve changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.
A.

Cognitive
B.

Biological
C.

Socioemotional
D.

Polycentric
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Socioemotional processes

36.

The connection across biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes is most obvious in the two rapidly emerging fields of:
A.

developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.
B.

developmental biological neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.
C.

developmental socioemotional pharmacology and developmental biological pharmacology.
D.

developmental cognitive biology and developmental cognitive biology.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Biological processes

37.

The developmental period, when one is an infant, adolescent, or middle-aged person, refers to:
A.

a historical circumstance common to people of a particular generation.
B.

a time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features.
C.

a time frame in which a person experiences maximum change.
D.

a time frame in a nation’s history that is characterized by rapid development.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

38.

The _____ period is the time from conception to birth.
A.

perinatal
B.

prenatal
C.

neonatal
D.

postnatal
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

39.

Jonathan is almost completely dependent on his parents for his wants and needs and is only just beginning to acquire language skills and sensorimotor coordination. Which of the following development periods is Jonathan in?
A.

Late childhood
B.

Middle childhood
C.

Early childhood
D.

Infancy
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

40.

Mary is three years-old, and in preschool. Identify the development period that Mary is currently in.
A.

Infancy
B.

Early childhood
C.

Middle childhood
D.

Late childhood
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

41.

Joey has shot up in height over the past year, has developed a deeper voice, and is starting to grow facial hair. He is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Which of the following periods of development is Joey in?
A.

Middle childhood
B.

Adolescence
C.

Early adulthood
D.

Late childhood
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

42.

Brittany is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Her thoughts are more logical, abstract, and idealistic. She is also experiencing rapid physical changes such as gain in height and weight. Which of the following periods of development is Brittany most likely in?
A.

Middle childhood
B.

Late adulthood
C.

Late childhood
D.

Adolescence
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

43.

_____ is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and, for many, selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.
A.

Early adulthood
B.

Late adolescence
C.

Middle adulthood
D.

Late adulthood
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

44.

Travis spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He is also wondering if he should move in with his girlfriend and about their long-term prospects. Travis is most likely in the _____ period of development.
A.

late adolescence
B.

early adulthood
C.

middle adulthood
D.

late adulthood
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

45.

Palma and her husband Frankie are in their mid-forties. Which of the following developmental periods are they currently in?
A.

Central adulthood
B.

The nesting years
C.

Middle adulthood
D.

Mate adulthood
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

46.

Peter is a senior partner at his law firm and is an important member of his church and community. Both his children are in college. Peter’s situation is most representative of which period of development?
A.

Early adulthood
B.

Middle adulthood
C.

Late adulthood
D.

Retirement
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

47.

Late adulthood is a time of:
A.

life review, adjustment to new social roles, and diminishing strength and health.
B.

expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility.
C.

establishing personal and economic independence and advancing in a career.
D.

selecting a mate, learning to live with that person in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

48.

Jessica spends a lot of time thinking about the choices she has made in her life and the events she has witnessed. She is adjusting to decreasing strength and health, and she has made several lifestyle changes as a result. Jessica is most likely in the _____ period of development.
A.

adolescence
B.

early adulthood
C.

middle adulthood
D.

late adulthood
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

49.

_____ has the longest span of any period of development and the number of people in this age group has been increasing dramatically.
A.

Middle and late childhood
B.

Adolescence
C.

Middle adulthood
D.

Late adulthood
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

50.

Katie-Lou is 88 years old. Katie would most likely be characterized as:
A.

young-old.
B.

old-old.
C.

oldest-old.
D.

late-old.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

51.

Which of the following statements about the “young-old” is true?
A.

They are people between 60 and 65 years of age.
B.

They have little potential for physical and cognitive fitness.
C.

They show considerable loss in cognitive skills.
D.

They can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

52.

Sharon is a 30-year-old stay-at-home mother to a toddler. Life-span developmentalists would consider her to be:
A.

in the second age of prime adulthood.
B.

transitioning from early adulthood to middle adulthood.
C.

a middle-aged woman.
D.

in an adult latency period.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

53.

Life-span developmentalists who focus on adult development and aging describe life-span development in terms of four “ages”. The “third age” in this conceptualization spans from:
A.

adolescence to prime adulthood.
B.

twenties through fifties.
C.

approximately 60 to 79 years of age.
D.

approximately 80 years to the time of death.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Periods of development

54.

Determining _____ age involves knowing the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs.
A.

social
B.

chronological
C.

biological
D.

psychological
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Conceptions of age

55.

Ramada, 69, an avid golfer and fitness enthusiast, recently got a comprehensive health exam done, and her physician remarked that her vital organs were in such good shape that her _____ age was about 10 years less than her chronological age.
A.

social
B.

mental
C.

biological
D.

psychological
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Conceptions of age

56.

_____ age is an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.
A.

Social
B.

Psychological
C.

Physical
D.

Biological
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Conceptions of age

57.

In predicting an adult woman’s behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a 3-year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old. This reflects the concept of:
A.

chronological age.
B.

social age.
C.

psychological age.
D.

biological age.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Conceptions of age

58.

The 35-year-old grandmother, the 65-year-old father of a preschooler, the 15-year old surgeon, and the 70-year-old student, all serve to illustrate that:
A.

old assumptions about the proper timing of life events no longer govern our lives.
B.

developmental age is becoming increasingly irrelevant.
C.

chronological age is becoming a more accurate predictor of life events in our society.
D.

biological age is becoming increasingly relevant.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Conceptions of age

59.

In the nature-nurture issue, nature refers to an organism’s _____, nurture to its _____.
A.

personality traits; abilities
B.

attributes; ecological heritage
C.

biological inheritance; environmental experiences
D.

acquired traits, heredity
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Nature and nurture

60.

The _____ issue involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or alter.
A.

growth-decline
B.

stability-change
C.

traits-characteristics
D.

permanence-evanescence
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Stability and change

61.

Gina’s therapist attributes her delinquent behavior to heredity and to the gross neglect she suffered as a baby at the hands of her alcoholic mother. Gina’s therapist appears to be emphasizing the _____ aspect of her development.
A.

personality
B.

life-long learning
C.

discontinuity
D.

stability
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Nature and nurture

62.

In the continuity-discontinuity issue in development, continuity refers to _____, while discontinuity implies _____.
A.

abrupt change; stability
B.

gradual change; distinct stages
C.

qualitative change; quantitative change
D.

discrete stages; gradations
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Continuity and discontinuity

63.

The concept of discontinuity is characterized by:
A.

qualitative change.
B.

quantitative change.
C.

collective change.
D.

measured change.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Nature and nurture

64.

Dr. Drew is a scientist interested in the effects of music on cognitive development. Which of the following describes the sequence he should go through?
A.

Collect data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, analyze data, and draw conclusions.
B.

Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, collect data, analyze data, and draw conclusions.
C.

Collect data, analyze data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, and draw conclusions.
D.

Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, draw conclusions, collect data, and analyze data.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Scientific method

65.

Dr. Perkins predicts that children who spend years playing a musical instrument are smarter than children who do not play music. This testable prediction is known as a(n) _____.
A.

hypothesis
B.

classification
C.

variable
D.

axiom
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Scientific method

66.

_____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.
A.

Behavioral
B.

Social-cognitive
C.

Evolutionary
D.

Psychoanalytic
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Psychoanalytic theory

67.

Dr. Berenstein holds the view that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind. Dr. Berenstein can be described as a(n):
A.

psychoanalytic theorist.
B.

evolutionary theorist.
C.

cognitive theorist.
D.

behavioral theorist.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Psychoanalytic theory

68.

Identify the correct sequence of the five stages of psychosexual development described in Freud’s theory of development.
A.

Genital, oral, anal, phallic, and latency
B.

Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
C.

Anal, genital, oral, phallic, and latency
D.

Oral, phallic, anal, latency, and genital
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Freud’s theory

69.

According to Freud, our adult personality is determined by:
A.

the way we resolve conflicts between home life and professional life.
B.

the resolution of adult realities versus childhood fantasies.
C.

the way we maintain a balance between family and friends.
D.

the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Freud’s theory

70.

Most contemporary psychoanalytic theorists believe that Sigmund Freud:
A.

proposed a theory that has stood the test of time and needs no revisions.
B.

overemphasized sexual instincts.
C.

overemphasized cultural experiences as determinants of an individual’s development.
D.

underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining development.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Freud’s theory

71.

The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the _____ theory of development.
A.

psychobiological
B.

psychogenic
C.

psychosocial
D.

psychoanatomical
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

72.

One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:
A.

Freud underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining the life-span development of an individual.
B.

Erikson believed that development lasted only until the age of 20.
C.

Erikson emphasized the importance of both early and later experiences.
D.

Erikson overemphasized the role of sexuality in the life-span development of an individual.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

73.

As defined by Erik Erikson, a crisis:
A.

will leave permanent psychological scars.
B.

will leave psychological scars that will eventually fade over time.
C.

will have a catastrophic impact on a person’s development, and will leave a psychological scar that will fade over time.
D.

is not a catastrophe but a turning point of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

74.

The first stage in Erickson’s theory is:
A.

autonomy versus shame and doubt.
B.

initiative versus guilt.
C.

generativity versus stagnation.
D.

trust versus mistrust.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

75.

Kelly responds to her infant’s needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired she puts him down for a nap, and when he is hungry she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to develop a sense of:
A.

autonomy.
B.

initiative.
C.

trust.
D.

integrity.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

76.

Two-year-old Julia is learning to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is “no”. This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson’s life-span stage of:
A.

initiative versus guilt.
B.

intimacy versus isolation.
C.

autonomy versus shame and doubt.
D.

trust versus mistrust.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

77.

McKenzie, age 2, wants to do everything on her own. Her mother punishes her when she attempts to pour her own milk or tries to answer the phone. Erikson would say that McKenzie is likely to develop a sense of:
A.

inferiority.
B.

autonomy.
C.

stagnation.
D.

shame and doubt.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

78.

Johnny is attempting to resolve the crisis of initiative vs. guilt. According to Erik Erikson, he is most likely in _____.
A.

preschool
B.

elementary school
C.

junior high school
D.

high school
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

79.

Erik Erikson’s developmental theory consists of _____ stages that last from the first year of life to:
A.

seven; early adulthood.
B.

eight; late adulthood.
C.

six; adolescence.
D.

nine; death.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

80.

Edwin was a neglected child in his infancy. Now, at 31 years of age, he is highly cynical about the world and feels that no one can be relied upon. Whenever he is in a relationship with a woman, he has tremendous feelings of suspicion toward his partner, and these feelings eventually lead to the breakup of the relationship. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, this is a good indication that Edwin did not successfully resolve the _____ stage of development, which in turn is causing him to experience _____ in his current developmental stage.
A.

identity versus identity confusion; stagnation
B.

trust versus mistrust; isolation
C.

autonomy versus shame and doubt; confusion
D.

trust versus mistrust; despair
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

81.

The elementary school years where children need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills is when Erikson’s stage of _____ takes place.
A.

intimacy versus isolation
B.

integrity versus despair
C.

autonomy versus shame and doubt
D.

industry versus inferiority
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

82.

Jessica, 16, is in the process of deciding what she wants to study in college. She wants to be an engineer one day and a painter the next day. Erik Erikson would say Jessica is in the _____ stage of development.
A.

intimacy versus isolation
B.

identity versus identity confusion
C.

initiative versus guilt
D.

industry versus inferiority
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

83.

During early adulthood, Erik Erikson’s developmental stage of _____ occurs.
A.

intimacy versus isolation
B.

integrity versus despair
C.

initiative versus guilt
D.

industry versus inferiority
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

84.

Caitlin, age 25, has a good job as a financial analyst but she has few friends and has had no success in dating. She admits that being close to others is a problem for her. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, Caitlin is at a risk of reaching the state of:
A.

stagnation.
B.

guilt.
C.

isolation.
D.

shame and doubt.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

85.

The term “generativity” as described in Erikson’s seventh stage of development primarily reflects a concern for:
A.

helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives.
B.

forming healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another.
C.

developing healthy ego boundaries.
D.

feeling secure in one’s job.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

86.

The final stage of Erik Erikson’s developmental theory is:
A.

generativity versus stagnation.
B.

trust versus mistrust.
C.

integrity versus despair.
D.

intimacy versus isolation.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

87.

Roger looks back on his life and feels that he failed to reach his potential, squandered opportunities, and hurt a lot of people. At 82 years of age, he knows it is too late to make amends. Roger is slipping into:
A.

stagnation.
B.

identity confusion.
C.

despair.
D.

mistrust.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

88.

Dr. Wong is a cognitive developmental theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of _____ in understanding development.
A.

conscious thoughts
B.

repressed memories
C.

biological processes
D.

the effects of genes and evolution on the development of intelligence
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Piaget’s cognitive development theory

89.

According to Piaget’s theory, two processes underlie children’s cognitive construction of the world:
A.

assimilation and generalization.
B.

adaptation and abstraction.
C.

association and abstraction.
D.

organization and adaptation.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Piaget’s cognitive development theory

90.

Amir is 18 months old. According to Piaget’s theory, he is in which of the following stages of cognitive development?
A.

Preoperational
B.

Sensorimotor
C.

Formal operational
D.

Concrete operational
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Piaget’s cognitive development theory

91.

Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development:
A.

start at conception and continue until adulthood.
B.

start at birth and end at death.
C.

span from conception to death.
D.

start at birth and continue through adulthood.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Piaget’s cognitive development theory

92.

Lynne, 5, loves to draw and color. She represents the world with words and her drawings. According to Piaget’s cognitive development theory, Lynne is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.
A.

preoperational
B.

sensorimotor
C.

formal operational
D.

concrete operational
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Piaget’s cognitive development theory

93.

Hidalgo, 8, is very good at addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the complex algebraic problems that his 14-year-old sister does. Hidalgo is currently in which of Jean Piaget’s stages of development?
A.

Preoperational
B.

Concrete operational
C.

Formal operational
D.

Conceptual operational
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Piaget’s cognitive development theory

94.

Sandrine is now able to use abstract thought as well as logic; Piaget would argue that she is in the _____ stage of development.
A.

preoperational
B.

concrete operational
C.

formal operational
D.

conceptual operational
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Piaget’s cognitive development theory

95.

Vygotsky’s theory emphasizes how _____ guides cognitive development.
A.

culture and social interaction
B.

biology
C.

the unconscious mind
D.

genetic makeup
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory

96.

A characteristic feature of information-processing psychologists are that they are most likely to:
A.

emphasize the influence of culture on development.
B.

emphasize that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it.
C.

state that individuals develop a gradually decreasing capacity for processing information.
D.

state that thinking does not constitute information processing.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Information-processing theory

97.

Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize:
A.

unconscious motives.
B.

discontinuity in behavior.
C.

continuity in development.
D.

that development occurs in stage-like fashion.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Skinner’s operant conditioning

98.

Dr. Nasrin believes that associating behavior with consequence can shape the probability of a behavior occurring. He is arguing that _____ conditioning is important for behavioral modification.
A.

stimulus
B.

operant
C.

classical
D.

cognitive
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Skinner’s operant conditioning

99.

Nellie, 3, bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. How could Skinner’s concept of operant conditioning be applied to address this behavior?
A.

Explore experiences from Nellie’s early childhood and address them in therapy
B.

Test Nellie to determine her current level of cognitive functioning
C.

Investigate her psychosocial environment and eliminate stressors
D.

Reward Nellie when she does not bang her head and punish the head-banging behavior
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Skinner’s operant conditioning

100.

B.F. Skinner, a behaviorist, would argue that the most important things that shape development are _____.
A.

thoughts and feelings
B.

unconscious motivations
C.

rewards and punishments
D.

culture and society
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Skinner’s operant conditioning

101.

Danny’s mother is even-tempered, fair, and tactful. Seeing this, Danny is growing up to be a polite, good-natured boy too. This imitation or modeling of behavior mirrors the concept of _____ in Bandura’s social cognitive theory.
A.

operant conditioning
B.

observational learning
C.

salient stimuli
D.

classical conditioning
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Bandura’s social cognitive theory

102.

Bandura’s most recent model of learning and development includes three elements: behavior, environment, and:
A.

person/cognition.
B.

culture.
C.

education level.
D.

motivation.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Bandura’s social cognitive theory

103.

Fernando believes that as individuals adapt to their environment, development, or phylogeny occurs. He further believes that there are critical periods that have also been selected for. He is most likely taking a(n) _____ approach.
A.

behavioral
B.

ethological
C.

social cognitive
D.

psychoanalytic
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ethological theory

104.

A recent television documentary concluded that, from birth, girls are more nurturing than are boys. Daniel agrees with this because he believes nurturing is an evolutionary trait passed on through the generations, because females needed to be more nurturing to aid the survival of the species. Daniel’s view reflects the _____ perspective of development.
A.

ideological
B.

clinical
C.

ethological
D.

theological
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ethological theory

105.

Konrad Lorenz performed research with goslings and found that many, upon hatching, identified him as their mother. He coined this form of attachment _____.
A.

conditioning
B.

imprinting
C.

internalizing
D.

acclimatizing
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ethological theory

106.

In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This period of time is called the:
A.

receptive period.
B.

sensitive period.
C.

critical period.
D.

bonding period.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ethological theory

107.

According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, a person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood constitute his/her:
A.

microsystem.
B.

mesosystem.
C.

chronosystem.
D.

macrosystem.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ecological theory

108.

The _____ involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.
A.

metasystem
B.

mesosystem
C.

chronosystem
D.

macrosystem
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ecological theory

109.

The _____ consists of links between a social setting in which an individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context.
A.

microsystem
B.

mesosystem
C.

exosystem
D.

macrosystem
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ecological theory

110.

The _____ involves the culture in which individuals live.
A.

chronosystem
B.

mesosystem
C.

ethnosystem
D.

macrosystem
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ecological theory

111.

Which of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances?
A.

Mesosystem
B.

Chronosystem
C.

Macrosystem
D.

Exosystem
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ecological theory

112.

Flevy, a marketing researcher, is conducting an extensive market study and has hired a big group of college students to hand out a standard set of questions to shoppers at malls and supermarkets and to seek their responses. Which of the following methods of data collection is Flevy using?
A.

Laboratory research
B.

Survey
C.

Naturalistic observation
D.

Physiological measures
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Survey and interview

113.

Cynthia is conducting a survey on the prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in her city. Which of the following problems is she likely to encounter while using this method of data collection?
A.

The assumption that a person’s behavior is consistent and stable.
B.

The inability to sample a large number of people.
C.

The assumption that surveys have to be conducted only in person.
D.

Some participants may not tell the truth and instead give socially acceptable answers.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Survey and interview

114.

Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests?
A.

They allow a person’s performance to be compared with that of other individuals.
B.

They assume a person’s behavior is consistent and stable.
C.

They provide information about individual differences among people.
D.

They are difficult to design.
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Standardized test

115.

Ariel wants to describe the strength of the relationship between the number of airplane companies in the world and global warming. Which of the following kinds of research is Ariel most likely to perform?
A.

Descriptive
B.

Correlational
C.

Collaborative
D.

Discrete
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Correlational research

116.

Dr. Jackson’s research has found that the correlation between IQ and head circumference is +.10. From this information, we can conclude that:
A.

people with large heads have a higher IQ than people with smaller heads.
B.

there is a weak relationship between head size and IQ.
C.

people with small heads tend to have a higher IQ than people with large heads.
D.

head circumference is an important predictor of IQ.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Correlational research

117.

Which of the following correlations is the strongest?
A.

-.65
B.

+.46
C.

+.70
D.

-.77
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Correlational research

118.

A(n) _____ is a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
A.

case study
B.

survey
C.

experiment
D.

correlation
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Experimental research

119.

A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for eight weeks. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is:
A.

the number of minutes on the treadmill.
B.

the exercise program (high versus low).
C.

the number of elderly patients.
D.

the eight-week duration of the exercise program.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Independent and dependent variables

120.

In an experimental study, the _____ group serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared.
A.

control
B.

experimental
C.

dependent
D.

independent
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Experimental and control groups

121.

The cross-sectional approach to developmental research compares:
A.

various research methodologies.
B.

various developmental theories.
C.

individuals of different ages.
D.

individuals of different genders.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Cross-sectional approach

122.

Dr. McLean has designed a study to test the cognitive skills of people in their 30s, 50s, and 70s, where data is collected over the course of a day through a series of tests. What type of research approach is Dr. McLean using?
A.

Longitudinal
B.

Cohort
C.

Latitudinal
D.

Cross-sectional
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Cross-sectional approach

123.

The longitudinal method of research consists of studying:
A.

the same individuals over a long period of time.
B.

individuals of different ages.
C.

individuals from around the globe.
D.

individuals born in the same year.
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Longitudinal approach

124.

According to APA’s guidelines, all participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop. This guideline addresses which of the following issues?
A.

Deception
B.

Debriefing
C.

Informed consent
D.

Confidentiality
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Ethical research

125.

When researchers use surface labels such as “Blacks”, “Hispanics”, and “Caucasians”, they underrepresent the differences that exist among people within the same racial group. This practice is referred to as:
A.

ethnic gloss.
B.

euphemization.
C.

acculturation.
D.

ethnic cleansing.
APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Cultural and ethnic bias

Short Answer Questions
126.

Identify the term that refers to the capacity for change.

 

Plasticity
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.
Topic: Characteristics of life-span perspective

127.

Which age is determined based on physical health and the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs?

 

Biological age
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Conceptions of age

128.

Identify the term that refers to the developmental issue or debate concerning whether development is influenced by biology or environment.

 

Nature-nurture issue
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Developmental issues

129.

Which theories describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion?

 

Psychoanalytic theories
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Psychoanalytic theory

130.

Which theorist proposed that psychosexual development occurred in the following five stages: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latent stage, and genital stage?

 

Sigmund Freud
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Freud’s theory

131.

Which theorist proposed eight psychosocial stages of development?

 

Erik Erikson
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Erikson’s psychosocial theory

132.

Xavier believes that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured. He argues that affective and cognitive explanations are circular. Which theoretical orientation is most akin to his views?

 

Behavioral orientation
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Skinner’s operant conditioning

133.

Which theorist developed the theory of operant conditioning?

 

B. F. Skinner
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Skinner’s operant conditioning

134.

Riley argues that behavior is strongly influenced by biology; it is tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods. What theoretical orientation does Riley most likely take?

 

Ethology
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ethological theory

135.

What term describes the method of gathering data by means of observing behaviors in real-world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation?

 

Naturalistic observation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Naturalistic observation

136.

In addition to chronological age, list and briefly describe the three other ways that “age” has been conceptualized.

 

Biological age is a person’s age in terms of biological health and is determined by knowing the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs. Psychological age refers to an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with others of the same chronological age. Social age refers to connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt.
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.
Topic: Conceptions of age

137.

Define theory and hypothesis. Illustrate your answer with an example.

 

A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions. A hypothesis is a specific assumption and prediction that can be tested and determined for accuracy. Hypotheses are formulated in order to test the assumptions of a theory. Results from research based on these hypotheses may, in turn, be used to revise the theory.
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Scientific method

138.

List Freud’s psychosexual stages and explain how adult personality is determined as a result of these stages.

 

Freud believed that we go through five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. According to Freud, our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Freud’s theory

139.

Briefly describe the ethological perspective. Provide an example that involves a critical period to support this perspective’s argument.

 

Ethology stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods. These are specific time frames during which, according to ethologists, the presence or absence of certain experiences has a long-lasting influence on individuals. Lorenz coined the term “imprinting” to describe the process of the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen. In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This point in time is called a critical period.
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ethological theory

140.

List and briefly describe Urie Bronfenbrenner’s five environmental systems.

 

Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory identifies five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. The microsystem is the setting in which an individual lives. The mesosystem involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts. The exosystem consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate environment. The macrosystem involves the culture in which individuals live. The chronosystem consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions as well as sociohistorical circumstances.
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ecological theory

141.

Explain eclectic theoretical orientation. What is the merit in using such an orientation?

 

An eclectic theoretical orientation is one which does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features. In this way, one can view the study of development as it actually exists—with different theorists making different assumptions, stressing different empirical problems, and using different strategies to discover information.
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.3: Summarize the main theories of human development.
Topic: Ecological theory

142.

Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using surveys as a way to collect data.

 

Surveys can be used to study a wide range of topics and can collect data from a large number of people. Surveys can be conducted in person, over the telephone, or on the Internet. A disadvantage to survey research is that people sometimes respond in ways that they think is socially acceptable rather than saying what they honestly think and believe.
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Survey and interview

143.

If, as a developmental researcher, one wished to study in-depth the life and mind of Ted Kaczynski—the notorious Unabomber—which method of data collection would one adopt and why?

 

A case study would best serve the purpose of studying Ted Kaczynski as the subject of research. A case study is an in-depth look at a single individual. It is performed mainly by mental health professionals when, for either practical or ethical reasons, the unique aspects of an individual’s life cannot be duplicated and tested in other individuals—as is the scenario for Ted Kaczynski. A case study provides information about the person’s experiences and allows the researcher to focus on any aspect of the subject’s life that helps him/her to understand the person’s mind, behavior, or other attributes.
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Case study

144.

Briefly explain the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment. Describe the relationship between them.

 

Experiments include two types of changeable factors, or variables: independent and dependent. An independent variable is a manipulated, influential, experimental factor. It is a potential cause. The label “independent” is used because this variable can be manipulated independently of other factors to determine its effect. An experiment may include one independent variable or several of them. A dependent variable is a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable. As researchers manipulate the independent variable, they measure the dependent variable for any resulting effect.
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Independent and dependent variables

145.

Compare and contrast the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches to research, listing the advantages and disadvantages of both.

 

The cross-sectional approach is a research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages. Data are usually collected over a short period of time. The longitudinal approach is a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more. In a cross-sectional study, the researcher does not have to wait for the individuals to grow up or become older. However, it gives no information about how individuals change or about the stability of their characteristics and can obscure the increases and decreases of development. Longitudinal studies address these concerns, but are expensive and time consuming and carry the risk of participants dropping out mid-way.
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the methods developmental researchers use to collect data and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Topic: Cross-sectional approach
Topic: Longitudinal approach

Life-Span Development Santrock 15th edition Test Bank