Life-Span Development 14th edition Santrock Test Bank


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  • Published: 2012
  • ISBN-10: 0078035325
  • ISBN-13: 978-0078035326


life span development santrock 14th edition test bank

chapter 01

1. Development can be defined as the pattern of movement or change that:

A. begins at childhood and continues until adulthood.

B. begins at conception and continues until adulthood.

C. begins at birth and continues through the human life span.

D. begins at conception and continues through the human life span.

2. The _____ approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence,

especially during infancy, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age.

A. prescriptive

B. constructivist

C. traditional

D. evolutionary

3. When taking his psychology class, Professor Sharma emphasizes that developmental change occurs

throughout adulthood as well as childhood. Professor Sharma is taking a(n) _____ approach to

developmental change.

A. life-span

B. evolutionary

C. normative

D. constructivist

4. Two developmental psychologists are having a conversation. One believes in the traditional approach of

developmental change; the other believes in the life-span approach. Which of the following issues would

they most likely differ on?

A. Whether developmental change starts at birth or at conception

B. Whether the tabula rasa or innate goodness positions were correct


Whether most developmental change occurs from birth to adolescence or throughout adulthood as well

as childhood


Whether the earlier theorists, such as Freud and Jung, were correct or whether the later theorists such as

Piaget and Skinner were correct about developmental change

5. On your first day of class, Professor Red-Elk claims that for too long we have focused on the

development of young children, especially infants. She argues that the development of adults and elderly

people is just as important. This professor is articulating a(n) _____ approach.

A. evolutionary

B. constructivist

C. normative

D. life-span

6. The maximum life span of humans:

A. has increased over time.

B. has not changed since the beginning of recorded history.

C. has matched their life expectancy in recent times.

D. is about 65 years as the first decade of the twenty-first century draws to a close.

7. Life expectancy in the United States has increased by _____ years during the twentieth century.

A. 20

B. 10

C. 30

D. 50

8. The life expectancy in the United States is currently:

A. 60 years.

B. 78 years.

C. 85 years.

D. 53 years.

9. If you subscribe to Paul Baltes’ perspective of life-span development, which of the following statements

would you NOT agree with?

A. Development is lifelong

B. Development is unidirectional

C. Development is plastic

D. Development is contextual

10. The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development


A. plastic.

B. contextual.

C. multidimensional.

D. lifelong.

11. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological,

socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:

A. lifelong.

B. contextual.

C. multidimensional.

D. plastic.

12. Many individuals become wiser as they age, but their performance on tasks that require speed in

processing information starts to decline. This illustrates how throughout life, some dimensions or

components of a dimension expand and others shrink, or how development is:

A. plastic.

B. contextual.

C. multidisciplinary.

D. multidirectional.

13. _____ means the capacity for change.

A. Elasticity

B. Plasticity

C. Contextuality

D. Tenacity

14. Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old and is currently enrolled in a college algebra course. He is pleasantly

surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not taking a formal math class for over 30 years.

Researchers would consider this an instance that illustrates how development is:

A. plastic.

B. multidisciplinary.

C. lifelong.

D. contextual.

15. “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks”. This old saying refutes Paul Baltes’ life-span perspective that

views development as being:

A. plastic.

B. multidisciplinary.

C. lifelong.

D. contextual.

16. Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all share an interest

in unlocking the mysteries of development through the life span. This indicates how development is:

A. multidirectional.

B. plastic.

C. multidisciplinary.

D. multidimensional.

17. “Individuals are changing beings in a changing world”. Which characteristic of development is reflected

in this statement?

A. Development is multidisciplinary

B. Development is contextual

C. Development is multidimensional

D. Development is multidirectional

18. _____ include biological processes such as puberty and menopause. They also include sociocultural,

environmental processes such as beginning formal education and retirement.

A. Normative age-graded influences

B. Normative history-graded influences

C. Normative life events

D. Nonnormative life events

19. By age 51, most women enter menopause. This is an example of how a biological process can exert a

_____ influence on development.

A. plastic

B. multidirectional

C. normative age-graded

D. nonnormative age-graded

20. Which type of influence is most likely to be common to people of a particular generation?

A. Nonnormative multidirectional influences

B. Normative age-graded influences

C. Nonnormative age-graded influences

D. Normative history-graded influences

21. The cultural makeup of the U.S. population has changed over the past few years due to immigration and

other factors. Such long-term changes in the genetic and cultural makeup of a population are part of:

A. nonnormative multidirectional change.

B. normative historical change.

C. nonnormative life events.

D. nonnormative demographic change.

22. When she was a child, Anna’s home was wrecked by a tornado and her neighbor was killed. More than 30

years later, she is still terrified of storms. This is an example of how a ____ event can influence a person’s


A. normative age-graded

B. normative generational

C. nonnormative life

D. normative history-graded

23. Nonnormative life events:

A. do not happen to all people.

B. happen to younger children but not to older adults.

C. are common to people of a particular generation.

D. influence the cultural makeup of a population.

24. Keith has won the lottery and now has more money than he ever dreamed of having. This incident will

likely affect Keith’s development and is an example of a:

A. normative history-graded influence.

B. nonnormative life event.

C. nonnormative history-graded influence.

D. normative age-graded influence.

25. Agatha is 83 years old. According to Baltes and his colleagues, _____ and _____ in her capacities will

take center stage.

A. growth; maintenance

B. maintenance; regulation of loss

C. regulation of loss; augmentation

D. growth; regulation of loss

26. _____ encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people

that are passed on from generation to generation.

A. Culture

B. Genotype

C. Social policy

D. Ethnocentricity

27. Dr. Wilman is researching the place women occupy in families in Japan and the U.S. Dr. Wilman is

conducting a(n) _____ study.

A. longitudinal

B. ethnocentric

C. cross-cultural

D. decentralized

28. Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to:


the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on

from generation to generation.

B. a person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.

C. the degree to which development is similar or universal across cultures.


a social label placed on a similar group of people based on their heritage, nationality, race, religion,

and language.

29. _____ is(are) a national government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.

A. Social policy

B. Generational policy

C. Cultural legislation

D. Socialized equity programs

30. Going by current trends, 86-year old Matilda is likely to be living:

A. with a spouse.

B. with children.

C. by herself.

D. with grandchildren.

31. Compared with earlier decades, U.S. adults today are:

A. more likely to be married.

B. more likely to be childless.

C. less likely to be living alone.

D. less likely to need social relationships and support.

32. Two concepts that help provide a framework for describing and understanding an individual’s

development are:

A. developmental attributes and behavior.

B. developmental characteristics and traits.

C. developmental challenges and opportunities.

D. developmental processes and periods.

33. Changes in motor skills, nutrition, exercise, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline

are all examples of _____ processes that affect development.

A. cognitive

B. biological

C. socioemotional

D. cultural

34. _____ processes refer to changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.

A. Cognitive

B. Biological

C. Socioemotional

D. Cultural

35. _____ processes involve changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions,

and changes in personality.

A. Cognitive

B. Biological

C. Socioemotional

D. Polycentric

36. The connection across biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes is most obvious in the two

rapidly emerging fields of:

A. developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.

B. developmental biological neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.

C. developmental socioemotional pharmacology, developmental biological pharmacology.

D. developmental cognitive biology and developmental cognitive biology.

37. A developmental period refers to:

A. a historical circumstance common to people of a particular generation.

B. a time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features.

C. a time frame in which a person experiences maximum change.

D. a time frame in a nation’s history that is characterized by rapid development.

38. The _____ period is the time from conception to birth.

A. perinatal

B. prenatal

C. neonatal

D. postnatal

39. Jonathan is almost completely dependent on his parents for his wants and needs and is only just beginning

to acquire language skills and sensorimotor coordination. Which of the following development periods is

Jonathan in?

A. Late childhood

B. Middle childhood

C. Early childhood

D. Infancy

40. Preschoolers would be in the _____ development period.

A. infancy

B. early childhood

C. middle childhood

D. late childhood

41. Joey has shot up in height over the past year, has developed a deeper voice, and is starting to grow facial

hair. He is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with

friends and less with family. Which of the following periods of development is Joey in?

A. Middle childhood

B. Adolescence

C. Early adulthood

D. Late childhood

42. Brittany is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time

with friends and less with family. Her thoughts are more logical, abstract, and idealistic. She is also

experiencing rapid physical changes such as gains in height and weight. Which of the following periods

of development is Brittany most likely in?

A. Middle childhood

B. Late adulthood

C. Late childhood

D. Adolescence

43. _____ is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and, for

many, selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing


A. Early adulthood

B. Late adolescence

C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

44. Travis spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He is also wondering if he

should move in with his girlfriend and about their long-term prospects. Travis is most likely in the _____

period of development.

A. late adolescence

B. early adulthood

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

45. The developmental period that runs from approximately 40 years of age to about 60 years of age is

referred to as:

A. central adulthood.

B. the nesting years.

C. middle adulthood.

D. late adulthood.

46. Peter is a senior partner at his law firm and is an important member of his church and community. Both

his children are in college. Peter’s situation is most representative of which period of development?

A. Early adulthood

B. Middle adulthood

C. Late adulthood

D. Retirement

47. Late adulthood is a time of:

A. life review, adjustment to new social roles, and diminishing strength and health.

B. expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility.

C. establishing personal and economic independence and advancing in a career.


selecting a mate, learning to live with that person in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing


48. Jessica spends a lot of time thinking about the choices she has made in her life and the events she has

witnessed. She is adjusting to decreasing strength and health, and she has made several lifestyle changes

as a result. Jessica is most likely in the _____ period of development.

A. adolescence

B. early adulthood

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

49. _____ has the longest span of any period of development and the number of people in this age group has

been increasing dramatically.

A. Middle and late childhood

B. Adolescence

C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

50. Katie-Lou is 88 years old. Katie would most likely be characterized as:

A. young-old.

B. old-old.

C. oldest-old.

D. late-old.

51. Which of the following statements about the “young-old” is true?

A. They are people between 60 and 65 years of age.

B. They have little potential for physical and cognitive fitness.

C. They show considerable loss in cognitive skills.

D. They can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging.

52. Sharon is a 30-year-old stay-at-home mother to a toddler. Life-span developmentalists would consider her

to be:

A. in the second age of prime adulthood.

B. transitioning from early adulthood to middle adulthood.

C. a middle-aged woman.

D. in an adult latency period.

53. Life-span developmentalists who focus on adult development and aging describe life-span development

in terms of four “ages”. The “third age” in this conceptualization spans from:

A. adolescence to prime adulthood.

B. twenties through fifties.

C. approximately 60 to 79 years of age.

D. approximately 80 years to the time of death.

54. Determining _____ age involves knowing the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs.

A. social

B. chronological

C. biological

D. psychological

55. Ramada, 69, an avid golfer and fitness enthusiast, recently got a comprehensive health exam done, and

her physician remarked that her vital organs were in such good shape that her _____ age was about 10

years less than her chronological age.

A. social

B. mental

C. biological

D. psychological

56. _____ age is an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same

chronological age.

A. Social

B. Psychological

C. Physical

D. Biological

57. In predicting an adult woman’s behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a 3-

year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old. This reflects the concept of:

A. chronological age.

B. social age.

C. psychological age.

D. biological age.

58. The 35-year-old grandmother, the 65-year-old father of a preschooler, the 15-year old surgeon, and the

70-year-old student, all serve to illustrate that:

A. old assumptions about the proper timing of life events no longer govern our lives.

B. developmental age is becoming increasingly irrelevant.

C. chronological age is becoming a more accurate predictor of life events in our society.

D. biological age is becoming increasingly relevant.

59. In the nature-nurture issue, nature refers to an organism’s _____, nurture to its:

A. personality traits; abilities.

B. attributes; ecological heritage.

C. biological inheritance; environmental experiences.

D. acquired traits, heredity.

60. The _____ issue involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or


A. growth-decline

B. stability-change

C. traits-characteristics

D. permanence-évanescence

61. Gina’s therapist attributes her delinquent behavior to heredity and to the gross neglect she suffered as a

baby at the hands of her alcoholic mother. Gina’s therapist appears to be emphasizing the _____ aspect of

her development.

A. personality

B. life-long learning

C. discontinuity

D. stability

62. In the continuity-discontinuity issue in development, continuity refers to _____, while discontinuity


A. abrupt change; stability.

B. gradual change; distinct stages.

C. qualitative change; quantitative change.

D. discrete stages; gradations.

63. The concept of discontinuity is characterized by:

A. qualitative change.

B. quantitative change.

C. collective change.

D. measured change.

64. Identify the correct sequence of processes in the scientific method.

A. Collect data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, analyze data, and draw conclusions.

B. Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, collect data, analyze data, and draw conclusions.

C. Collect data, analyze data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, and draw conclusions.

D. Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, draw conclusions, collect data, and analyze data.

65. A theory may suggest _____, which are specific assertions and predictions that can be tested.

A. hypotheses

B. classifications

C. variables

D. axioms

66. _____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.

A. Behavioral

B. Social-cognitive

C. Evolutionary

D. Psychoanalytic

67. Dr. Berenstein holds the view that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true

understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner

workings of the mind. Dr. Berenstein can be described as a(n):

A. psychoanalytic theorist.

B. evolutionary theorist.

C. cognitive theorist.

D. behavioral theorist.

68. Identify the correct sequence of the five stages of psychosexual development described in Freud’s theory

of development.

A. Genital, oral, anal, phallic, and latency

B. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

C. Anal, genital, oral, phallic, and latency

D. Oral, phallic, anal, latency, and genital

69. According to Freud, our adult personality is determined by:

A. the way we resolve conflicts between home life and professional life.

B. the resolution of adult realities versus childhood fantasies.

C. the way we maintain a balance between family and friends.

D. the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.

70. Most contemporary psychoanalytic theorists believe that Sigmund Freud:

A. proposed a theory that has stood the test of time and needs no revisions.

B. overemphasized sexual instincts.

C. overemphasized cultural experiences as determinants of an individual’s development.

D. underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining development.

71. The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the _____ theory of development.

A. psychobiological

B. psychogenic

C. psychosocial

D. psychoanatomical

72. One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:


Freud underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining the life-span development of an


B. Erikson believed that development lasted only until the age of 20.

C. Erikson emphasized the importance of both early and later experiences.

D. Erik Erikson overemphasized the role of sexuality in the life-span development of an individual.

73. As defined by Erik Erikson, a crisis:

A. will leave permanent psychological scars.

B. will leave psychological scars that will eventually fade over time.


will have a catastrophic impact on a person’s development, and will leave a psychological scar that will

fade over time.

D. is not a catastrophe but a turning point of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential.

74. The first stage in Erickson’s theory is:

A. autonomy versus shame and doubt.

B. initiative versus guilt.

C. generativity versus stagnation.

D. trust versus mistrust.

75. Kelly responds to her infant son’s needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired she puts him

down for a nap, and when he is hungry she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to

develop a sense of:

A. autonomy.

B. initiative.

C. trust.

D. integrity.

76. Two-year old Julia is learning to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is “no”. This

would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson’s life-span stage of:

A. initiative versus guilt.

B. intimacy versus isolation.

C. autonomy versus shame and doubt.

D. trust versus mistrust.

77. McKenzie, age 2, wants to do everything on her own. Her mother punishes her when she attempts to pour

her own milk or tries to answer the phone. Erikson would say that McKenzie is likely to develop a sense


A. initiative.

B. autonomy.

C. stagnation.

D. shame and doubt.

78. Erik Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt occurs within which of the following periods?

A. Preschool

B. Elementary school

C. Junior high school

D. High school

79. Erik Erikson’s developmental theory consists of _____ stages that last from the first year of life to:

A. seven; early adulthood.

B. eight; late adulthood.

C. six; adolescence.

D. nine; death.

80. Edwin was a neglected child in his infancy. Now, at 31 years of age, he is highly cynical about the

world and feels that no one can be relied upon. Whenever he is in a relationship with a woman, he has

tremendous feelings of suspicion toward his partner, and these feelings eventually lead to the breakup of

the relationship. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, this is a good indication that Edwin did not

successfully resolve the _____ stage of development, which in turn is causing him to experience _____ in

his current developmental stage.

A. identity versus identity confusion; stagnation

B. trust versus mistrust; isolation

C. autonomy versus shame and doubt; confusion

D. trust versus mistrust; despair

81. The elementary school years where children need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and

intellectual skills is when Erikson’s stage of _____ takes place.

A. intimacy versus isolation

B. integrity versus despair

C. autonomy versus shame and doubt

D. industry versus inferiority

82. Jessica, 16, is in the process of deciding what she wants to study in college. She wants to be an

engineer one day and a painter the next day. Erik Erikson would say Jessica is in the _____ stage of


A. intimacy versus isolation

B. identity versus identity confusion

C. initiative versus guilt

D. industry versus inferiority

83. During early adulthood, Erik Erikson’s developmental stage of _____ occurs.

A. intimacy versus isolation

B. integrity versus despair

C. initiative versus guilt

D. industry versus inferiority

84. Caitlin, age 25, has a good job as a financial analyst but she has few friends and has had no success in

dating. She admits that being close to others is a problem for her. According to Erikson’s psychosocial

theory, Caitlin is at a risk of reaching the state of:

A. stagnation.

B. guilt.

C. isolation.

D. shame and doubt.

85. The term “generativity” as described in Erikson’s seventh stage of development primarily reflects a

concern for:

A. helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives.

B. forming healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another.

C. developing healthy ego boundaries.

D. feeling secure in one’s job.

86. The final stage of Erik Erikson’s developmental theory is:

A. generativity versus stagnation.

B. trust versus mistrust.

C. integrity versus despair.

D. intimacy versus isolation.

87. Roger looks back on his life and feels that he failed to reach his potential, squandered opportunities,

and hurt a lot of people. At 82 years of age, he knows it is too late to make amends. Roger is slipping


A. stagnation.

B. identity confusion.

C. despair.

D. mistrust.

88. Dr. Wong is a cognitive developmental theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of _____

in understanding development.

A. conscious thoughts

B. repressed memories

C. biological processes

D. the effects of genes and evolution on the development of intelligence

89. According to Piaget’s theory, two processes underlie children’s cognitive construction of the world:

A. assimilation and generalization.

B. adaptation and abstraction.

C. association and abstraction.

D. organization and adaptation.

90. The _____ stage, which lasts from birth to about 2 years of age, is the first Piagetian stage of cognitive


A. preoperational

B. sensorimotor

C. formal operational

D. concrete operational

91. Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development:

A. start at conception and continue until adulthood.

B. start at birth and end at death.

C. span from conception to death.

D. start at birth and continue through adulthood.

92. Lynne, 5, loves to draw and color. She represents the world with words and her drawings. According to

Piaget’s cognitive development theory, Lynne is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.

A. preoperational

B. sensorimotor

C. formal operational

D. concrete operational

93. Hidalgo, 8, is very good at addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the complex

algebraic problems that his 14-year old sister does. Hidalgo is currently in which of Jean Piaget’s stages

of development?

A. Preoperational

B. Concrete operational

C. Formal operational

D. Conceptual operational

94. In the _____ stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory, individuals move beyond real experiences

and think in abstract and more logical terms.

A. preoperational

B. concrete operational

C. formal operational

D. conceptual operational

95. Vygotsky’s theory emphasizes how _____ guide(s) cognitive development.

A. culture and social interaction

B. biology

C. the unconscious mind

D. genes

96. The information-processing theory:

A. emphasizes the influence of culture on development.

B. emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it.

C. states that individuals develop a gradually decreasing capacity for processing information.

D. states that thinking does not constitute information processing.

97. Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize:

A. unconscious motives.

B. discontinuity in behavior.

C. continuity in development.

D. that development occurs in stage-like fashion.

98. Through _____ conditioning, the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the

behavior’s occurrence.

A. stimulus

B. operant

C. classical

D. cognitive

99. Nellie, 3, bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. How could Skinner’s concept of

operant conditioning be applied to address this behavior?

A. Explore experiences from Nellie’s early childhood and address them in therapy

B. Test Nellie to determine her current level of cognitive functioning

C. Investigate her psychosocial environment and eliminate stressors

D. Reward Nellie when she does not bang her head and punish the head-banging behavior

100.In B.F. Skinner’s view, _____ shape development.

A. thoughts and feelings

B. unconscious motivations

C. rewards and punishments

D. culture and society

101.Danny’s mother is even-tempered, fair, and tactful. Seeing this, Danny, too, is growing up to be a polite,

good-natured boy. This imitation or modeling of behavior mirrors the concept of _____ in Bandura’s

social cognitive theory.

A. operant conditioning

B. observational learning

C. salient stimuli

D. classical conditioning

102.Bandura’s most recent model of learning and development includes three elements: behavior,

environment, and:

A. person/cognition.

B. culture.

C. education level.

D. motivation.

103._____ theory stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology and evolution and has sensitive/

critical periods.

A. Evolutionary

B. Ethological

C. Social cognitive

D. Psychoanalytic

104.A recent television documentary concluded that, from birth, girls are more nurturing than are boys. You

agree with this because you believe nurturing is an evolutionary trait passed on through the generations,

because females needed to be more nurturing to aid the survival of the species. Your view reflects the

_____ perspective of development.

A. ideological

B. clinical

C. ethological

D. theological

105.Konrad Lorenz coined the term “_____” to describe the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to

the first moving object seen.

A. conditioning

B. imprinting

C. internalizing

D. acclimatizing

106.In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or

else it will not take place. This point in time is called a:

A. receptive period.

B. sensitive period.

C. critical period.

D. bonding period.

107.According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, a person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood

constitute his/her:

A. microsystem.

B. mesosystem.

C. chronosystem.

D. macrosystem.

108.The _____ involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.

A. metasystem

B. mesosystem

C. chronosystem

D. macrosystem

109.The _____ consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role

and the individual’s immediate context.

A. microsystem

B. mesosystem

C. exosystem

D. macrosystem

110.The _____ involves the culture in which individuals live.

A. chronosystem

B. mesosystem

C. ethnosystem

D. macrosystem

111.Which of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems consists of the patterning of environmental

events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances?

A. Mesosystem

B. Chronosystem

C. Macrosystem

D. Exosystem

112.Flevy is conducting an extensive market study and has hired a big group of college students to hand out a

standard set of questions to shoppers at malls and supermarkets and to seek their responses. Which of the

following methods of data collection is Flevy using?

A. Laboratory research

B. Survey

C. Naturalistic observation

D. Physiological measures

113.Cynthia is conducting a survey on the prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in her city. What could

be a problem that Cynthia could encounter while using this method of data collection?

A. The assumption that a person’s behavior is consistent and stable

B. The inability to sample a large number of people

C. That surveys have to be conducted only in person

D. Some participants may not tell the truth and instead give socially acceptable answers

114.Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests?

A. They allow a person’s performance to be compared with that of other individuals.

B. They assume a person’s behavior is consistent and stable.

C. They provide information about individual differences among people.

D. They are difficult to design.

115.In _____ research, the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or


A. descriptive

B. correlational

C. collaborative

D. discrete

116.Dr. Jackson’s research has found that the correlation between IQ and head circumference is +.10. From

this information, we can conclude that:

A. people with large heads have a higher IQ than people with smaller heads.

B. there is a weak relationship between head size and IQ.

C. people with small heads tend to have a higher IQ than people with large heads.

D. head circumference is an important predictor of IQ.

117.Which of the following correlations is the strongest?

A. – 65

B. + 46

C. + 70

D. – 77

118.A(n) _____ is a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the

behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.

A. case study

B. survey

C. experiment

D. physiological measure

119.A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are

randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for eight weeks. At the end

of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill.

In this study, the dependent variable is:

A. the number of minutes on the treadmill.

B. the exercise program (high versus low).

C. the number of elderly patients.

D. the eight-week duration of the exercise program.

120.In an experimental study, the _____ group serves as a baseline against which the effects of the

manipulated condition can be compared.

A. control

B. experimental

C. dependent

D. independent

121.The cross-sectional approach to developmental research compares:

A. various research methodologies.

B. various developmental theories.

C. individuals of different ages.

D. individuals of different genders.

122.Dr. McLean has designed a study to test the cognitive skills of people in their 30s, 50s, and 70s where

data is collected over the course of a day through a series of tests. What type of research approach is Dr.

McLean using?

A. Longitudinal

B. Cohort

C. Latitudinal

D. Cross-sectional

123.The longitudinal method of research consists of studying:

A. the same individuals over a long period of time.

B. individuals of different ages.

C. individuals from around the globe.

D. individuals born in the same year.

124.According to APA’s guidelines, all participants must know what their research participation will involve

and what risks might develop. This guideline addresses which of the following issues?

A. Deception

B. Debriefing

C. Informed consent

D. Confidentiality

125.When researchers use surface labels such as “Blacks”, “Hispanics”, and “Caucasians”, they

underrepresent the differences that exist among people within the same racial group. This practice is

referred to as:

A. ethnic gloss.

B. euphemizing.

C. acculturation.

D. acclimatization.

126.This refers to the capacity for change.

127.This is a way of conceptualizing age where age is characterized by physical health and the functional

capacities of a person’s vital organs.

128.The developmental issue or debate concerning whether development is influenced by biology or


129.Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by


130.This theorist proposed that psychosexual development occurred in the five stages: oral stage, anal stage,

phallic stage, latent stage, and genital stage.

131.This theorist proposed eight psychosocial stages of development.

132.A theoretical perspective that maintains that we can study scientifically only what can be directly

observed and measured.

133.This theorist developed the theory of operant conditioning.

134.This orientation to development stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to

evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.

135.A method of gathering data by means of observing behaviors in real-world settings, making no effort to

manipulate or control the situation.

136.In addition to chronological age, list and briefly describe the three other ways that “age” has been


137.Define theory and hypothesis.

138.List Freud’s psychosexual stages and explain how adult personality is determined as a result of these


139.Explain ethology and the concept of critical periods.

140.List and briefly describe Urie Bronfenbrenner’s five environmental systems.

141.Explain eclectic theoretical orientation. What is the merit in using such an orientation?

142.Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using surveys as a way to collect data.

143.If, as a developmental researcher, you wished to study in-depth the life and mind of Ted Kaczynski—

the notorious Unabomber—who is featured at the beginning of the text, which method of data collection

would you adopt? Why?

144.Briefly explain the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment. Describe the

relationship between them.

145.Compare and contrast the cross-sectional and longitudinal approach to research, listing the advantages

and disadvantages of both.

ch01 Key

1. (p. 6) D

2. (p. 7) C

3. (p. 7) A

4. (p. 7) C

5. (p. 7) D

6. (p. 7) B

7. (p. 7) C

8. (p. 7) B

9. (p. 7) B

10. (p. 7) D

11. (p. 8) C

12. (p. 8) D

13. (p. 8) B

14. (p. 8) A

15. (p. 8) A

16. (p. 8) C

17. (p. 8) B

18. (p. 8-9) A

19. (p. 8-9) C

20. (p. 9) D

21. (p. 9) B

22. (p. 9) C

23. (p. 9) A

24. (p. 9) B

25. (p. 9) B

26. (p. 10) A

27. (p. 10) C

28. (p. 10) B

29. (p. 11) A

30. (p. 13) C

31. (p. 13) B

32. (p. 15) D

33. (p. 15) B

34. (p. 15) A

35. (p. 15) C

36. (p. 15) A

37. (p. 15) B

38. (p. 16) B

39. (p. 16) D

40. (p. 16) B

41. (p. 16) B

42. (p. 16) D

43. (p. 17) A

44. (p. 17) B

45. (p. 17) C

46. (p. 17) B

47. (p. 17) A

48. (p. 17) D

49. (p. 17) D

50. (p. 17) C

51. (p. 17) D

52. (p. 17) A

53. (p. 17) C

54. (p. 18) C

55. (p. 18) C

56. (p. 18) B

57. (p. 19) B

58. (p. 19) A

59. (p. 19) C

60. (p. 20) B

61. (p. 20) D

62. (p. 20) B

63. (p. 20) A

64. (p. 21) B

65. (p. 21) A

66. (p. 21) D

67. (p. 21-22) A

68. (p. 22) B

69. (p. 22) D

70. (p. 22) B

71. (p. 22) C

72. (p. 22) C

73. (p. 22) D

74. (p. 22) D

75. (p. 22) C

76. (p. 22) C

77. (p. 22) D

78. (p. 22) A

79. (p. 22-23) B

80. (p. 22-23) B

81. (p. 23) D

82. (p. 23) B

83. (p. 23) A

84. (p. 23) C

85. (p. 23) A

86. (p. 23) C

87. (p. 23) C

88. (p. 23) A

89. (p. 23) D

90. (p. 23) B

91. (p. 23-24) D

92. (p. 24) A

93. (p. 24) B

94. (p. 24) C

95. (p. 25) A

96. (p. 25) B

97. (p. 25) C

98. (p. 25) B

99. (p. 25) D

100. (p. 25) C

101. (p. 26) B

102. (p. 26) A

103. (p. 26) B

104. (p. 26) C

105. (p. 26) B

106. (p. 26) C

107. (p. 27) A

108. (p. 27) B

109. (p. 27) C

110. (p. 27) D

111. (p. 28) B

112. (p. 30) B

113. (p. 31) D

114. (p. 31) B

115. (p. 32) B

116. (p. 32) B

117. (p. 32) D

118. (p. 33) C

119. (p. 33) A

120. (p. 33) A

121. (p. 34) C

122. (p. 34) D

123. (p. 34) A

124. (p. 37) C

125. (p. 38) A

126. (p. 8) Plasticity

127. (p. 18) Biological age

128. (p. 19) Nature-nurture issue

129. (p. 21) Psychoanalytic theories

130. (p. 22) Sigmund Freud

131. (p. 22) Erik Erikson

132. (p. 25) Behaviorism

133. (p. 25) B. F. Skinner

134. (p. 26) Ethology

135. (p. 30) Naturalistic observation

136. (p. 18-19) Biological age is a person’s age in terms of biological health and is determined by knowing the functional capacities of a person’s

vital organs. Psychological age refers to an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with others of the same chronological age. Social age refers

to connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt.

137. (p. 21) A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions. A hypothesis is a specific

assumption and prediction that can be tested and determined for accuracy. Hypotheses are formulated in order to test the assumptions of a theory.

Results from research based on these hypotheses may, in turn, be used to revise the theory.

138. (p. 22) Freud believed that we go through five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. According to

Freud, our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.

139. (p. 26) Ethology stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive

periods. These are specific time frames during which, according to ethologists, the presence or absence of certain experiences has a long-lasting

influence on individuals. Lorenz coined the term “imprinting” to describe the process of the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the

first moving object seen. In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not

take place. This point in time is called a critical period.

140. (p. 27-28) Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory identifies five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem,

and chronosystem. The microsystem is the setting in which an individual lives. The mesosystem involves relations between microsystems or

connections between contexts. The exosystem consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role

and the individual’s immediate environment. The macrosystem involves the culture in which individuals live. The chronosystem consists of the

patterning of environmental events and transitions as well as sociohistorical circumstances.

141. (p. 28) An eclectic theoretical orientation is one which does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory

whatever is considered its best features. In this way, you can view the study of development as it actually exists—with different theorists making

different assumptions, stressing different empirical problems, and using different strategies to discover information.

142. (p. 30-31) Surveys can be used to study a wide range of topics and can collect data from a large number of people. Surveys can be conducted

in person, over the telephone, or on the Internet. A disadvantage to survey research is that people sometimes respond in ways that they think is

socially acceptable rather than saying what they honestly think and believe.

143. (p. 31) A case study would best serve the purpose of studying Ted Kaczynski as the subject of research. A case study is an in-depth look at

a single individual. It is performed mainly by mental health professionals when, for either practical or ethical reasons, the unique aspects of an

individual’s life cannot be duplicated and tested in other individuals—as is the scenario for Ted Kaczynski. A case study provides information

about the person’s experiences and allows the researcher to focus on any aspect of the subject’s life that helps him/her to understand the person’s

mind, behavior, or other attributes.

144. (p. 33) Experiments include two types of changeable factors, or variables: independent and dependent. An independent variable is a

manipulated, influential, experimental factor. It is a potential cause. The label “independent” is used because this variable can be manipulated

independently of other factors to determine its effect. An experiment may include one independent variable or several of them. A dependent

variable is a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable. As researchers manipulate the

independent variable, they measure the dependent variable for any resulting effect.

145. (p. 34) The cross-sectional approach is a research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages. Data are usually

collected over a short period of time. The longitudinal approach is a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of

time, usually several years or more. In a cross-sectional study, the researcher does not have to wait for the individuals to grow up or become older.

However, it gives no information about how individuals change or about the stability of their characteristics and can obscure the increases and

decreases of development. Longitudinal studies address these concerns, but are expensive and time consuming and carry the risk of participants

dropping out mid-way.

ch01 Summary

Category # of Questions

Blooms: Apply 37

Blooms: Remember 81

Blooms: Understand 27

Santrock – Chapter 01 145

life span development santrock 14th edition test bank