Pathophysiology 5th edition Copstead, Banasik Test Bank

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  • Published: 2013
  • ISBN-10: 1455726508
  • ISBN-13: 978-1455726509

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pathophysiology 5th edition copstead test bank

Chapter 1: Introduction to Pathophysiology

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. C.Q. was recently exposed to group A hemolytic Streptococcus and subsequently developed a pharyngeal infection. His clinic

examination reveals an oral temperature of 102.3° F, skin rash, dysphagia, and reddened throat mucosa with multiple pustules. He

complains of sore throat, malaise, and joint stiffness. A throat culture is positive for Streptococcus, and antibiotics have been

prescribed. The etiology of C.Q.’s disease is

a. a sore throat.

b. streptococcal infection.

c. genetic susceptibility.

d. pharyngitis.

ANS: B

Etiology refers to the proposed cause or causes of a particular disease process. A sore throat is the manifestation of the disease

process. Genetic susceptibility refers to inherited tendency to develop a disease. Pharyngitis refers to inflammation of the throat and

is also a clinical manifestation of the disease process.

REF: Pg. 2

2. A 17-year-old college-bound student receives a vaccine against an organism that causes meningitis. This is an example of

a. primary prevention.

b. secondary prevention.

c. tertiary prevention.

d. disease treatment.

ANS: A

Primary prevention is prevention of disease by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible individuals by providing

vaccination. Secondary prevention is the early detection, screening, and management of the disease. Tertiary prevention includes

rehabilitative and supportive care and attempts to alleviate disability and restore effective functioning. Disease treatment involves

management of the disease once it has developed.

REF: Pg. 9

3. An obese but otherwise healthy teen is given a prescription for a low-calorie diet and exercise program. This is an example of

a. primary prevention.

b. secondary prevention.

c. tertiary prevention.

d. disease treatment.

ANS: B

Secondary prevention is the early detection, screening, and management of the disease such as prescribing diet and exercise for an

individual who has already developed obesity. Primary prevention is prevention of disease by altering susceptibility or reducing

exposure for susceptible individuals. Tertiary prevention includes rehabilitative and supportive care and attempts to alleviate

disability and restore effective functioning. Disease treatment involves management of the disease once it has developed.

REF: Pgs. 9-10

4. A patient with high blood pressure who is otherwise healthy is counseled to restrict sodium intake. This is an example of

a. primary prevention.

b. secondary prevention.

c. tertiary prevention.

d. disease treatment.

ANS: B

Secondary prevention is the early detection, screening, and management of the disease, such as by prescribing sodium restriction for

high blood pressure. Primary prevention is prevention of disease by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible

individuals. Tertiary prevention includes rehabilitative and supportive care and attempts to alleviate disability and restore effective

functioning. Disease treatment involves management of the disease once it has developed.

REF: Pgs. 9-10

5. After suffering a heart attack, a middle-aged man is counseled to take a cholesterol-lowering medication. This is an example of

a. primary prevention.

b. secondary prevention.

c. tertiary prevention.

d. disease treatment.

ANS: C

Tertiary prevention includes rehabilitative and supportive care and attempts to alleviate disability and restore effective functioning

such as prescribing a cholesterol lowering medication following a heart attack. Primary prevention is prevention of disease by

altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible individuals. Secondary prevention is the early detection, screening, and

management of the disease. Disease treatment involves management of the disease once it has developed.

REF: Pgs. 9-10

Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2005 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 2

6. A patient has been exposed to meningococcal meningitis, but is not yet demonstrating signs of this disease. This stage of illness is

called the _____ stage.

a. prodromal

b. latent

c. sequela

d. convalescence

ANS: B

Incubation refers to the interval between exposure of a tissue to an injurious agent and the first appearance of signs and symptoms.

In infectious diseases, this period is often called the incubation (latent) period. Prodromal refers to the appearance of the first signs

and symptoms indicating the onset of a disease. These are often nonspecific, such as headache, malaise, anorexia, and nausea,

which are associated with a number of different diseases. Sequela refers to subsequent pathologic condition resulting from a

disease. Convalescence is the stage of recovery after a disease, injury, or surgical operation.

REF: Pg. 3

7. A disease that is native to a particular region is called

a. epidemic.

b. endemic.

c. pandemic.

d. ethnographic.

ANS: B

A disease that is native to a particular region is called endemic. An epidemic is a disease that spreads to many individuals at the

same time. Pandemics are epidemics that affect large geographic regions, perhaps spreading worldwide.

REF: Pg. 6

8. In general, with aging, organ size and function

a. increase.

b. decrease.

c. remain the same.

d. is unknown.

ANS: B

In general, with aging, organ size and function decrease.

REF: Pg. 5

9. The stage during which the patient functions normally, although the disease processes are well established, is referred to as

a. latent.

b. subclinical.

c. prodromal.

d. convalescence.

ANS: B

The stage during which the patient functions normally, although the disease processes are well established, is called the subclinical

stage. The interval between exposure of a tissue to an injurious agent and the first appearance of signs and symptoms may be called

a latent period or, in the case of infectious diseases, an incubation period. The prodromal period, or prodrome, refers to the

appearance of the first signs and symptoms indicating the onset of a disease. Convalescence is the stage of recovery after a disease,

injury, or surgical operation.

REF: Pg. 3

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

10. Your patient’s red blood cell is slightly elevated today. This might be explained by (Select all that apply.)

a. gender difference.

b. situational factors.

c. normal variation.

d. cultural variation.

e. illness.

ANS: A, B, C, E

Gender, situations (e.g., altitude), normal variations, and illness may all determine red blood cell count. Culture affects how

manifestations are perceived (normal versus abnormal).

REF: Pgs. 5-6

11. Socioeconomic factors influence disease development due to (Select all that apply.)

a. genetics.

b. environmental toxins.

c. overcrowding.

d. nutrition.

e. hygiene.

ANS: B, C, D, E

Socioeconomic factors influence disease development via exposure to environmental toxins (occupational) and overcrowding,

nutrition (over- or undernutrition), and hygiene (e.g., in developing countries). Genetics is not influenced by socioeconomic factors.

REF: Pgs. 7-8

Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2005 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 3

COMPLETION

12. When the cause is unknown, a condition is said to be ________.

ANS:

idiopathic

Many diseases are idiopathic in nature.

REF: Pg. 2

13. The nurse is swabbing a patient’s throat to test for streptococcal pharyngitis. The nurse must understand that tests such as this differ

in the probability that they will be positive for a condition when applied to a person with the condition; this probability is termed

________.

ANS:

sensitivity

The sensitivity of any test refers to the probability that the test will be positive when applied to a person with the condition and will

not provide a false negative result. In contrast, specificity is the probability that a test will be negative when applied to a person who

does not have a given condition.

REF: Pg. 5

pathophysiology 5th edition copstead test bank

Table of Contents = 54 Chapters

Unit I: Pathophysiologic Processes

1. Introduction to Pathophysiology

2. Homeostasis and Adaptive Responses to Stressors

Unit II: Cellular Function

3. Cell Structure and Function

4. Cell Injury, Aging, and Death

5. Genome Structure, Regulation, and Tissue Differentiation

6. Genetic and Developmental Disorders

7. Neoplasia

Unit III: Defense

8. Infectious Processes

9. Inflammation and Immunity

10. Alterations in Immune Function

11. Malignant Disorders of White Blood Cells

12. HIV Disease and AIDS

Unit IV: Oxygen Transport, Blood Coagulation, Blood Flow, and Blood Pressure

13. Alterations in Oxygen Transport

14. Alterations in Homeostasis and Blood Coagulation

15. Alterations in Blood Flow

16. Alterations in Blood Pressure

Unit V: Cardiac Function

17. Cardiac Function

18. Alterations in Cardiac Function

19. Heart Failure and Dysrhythmias: Common Sequelae of Cardiac Diseases

20. Shock

Unit VI: Respiratory Function

21. Respiratory Function and Alterations in Gas Exchange

22. Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders

23. Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders

Unit VII: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis

24. Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis and Imbalances

25. Acid-Base Homeostasis and Imbalances

Unit VIII: Renal and Bladder Function

26. Renal Function

27. Intrarenal Disorders

28. Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

29. Disorders of the Lower Urinary Tract

Unit IX: Genital and Reproductive Function

30. Male Genital and Reproductive Function

31. Alterations in Male Genital and Reproductive Function

32. Female Genital and Reproductive Function

33. Alterations in Female Genital and Reproductive Function

34. Sexually Transmitted Infections

Unit X: Gastrointestinal Function

35. Gastrointestinal Function

36. Gastrointestinal Disorders

37. Alterations in Function of the Gallbladder and Exocrine Pancreas

38. Liver Diseases

Unit XI: Endocrine Function, Metabolism, and Nutrition

39. Endocrine Physiology and Mechanisms of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Regulation

40. Disorders of Endocrine Function

41. Diabetes Mellitus

42. Alterations in Metabolism and Nutrition

Unit XII: Neural Function

43. Structure and Function of the Nervous System

44. Acute Disorders of Brain Function

45. Chronic Disorders of Neurologic Function

46. Alterations in Special Sensory Function

47. Pain

Unit XIII: Neuropsychological Function

48. Neurobiology of Psychotic Illnesses

49. Neurobiology of Nonpsychotic Illnesses

Unit XIV: Musculoskeletal Support and Movement

50. Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System

51. Alterations in Musculoskeletal Function: Trauma, Infection, and Disease

52. Alterations in Musculoskeletal Function: Rheumatic Disorders

Unit XV: Integumentary System

53. Alterations in the Integumentary System

54. Burn Injuries