Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States 8th edition Porth Test Bank

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  • Download: Pathophysiology, Concepts of Altered Health States 8th edition Porth Test Bank
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  • Published: 2008
  • ISBN-10: 0781766168
  • ISBN-13: 978-0781766166

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pathophysiology porth 8th edition test bank

Chapter 1

1. A community health nurse is teaching a group of recent graduates about the large

variety of factors that influence an individual’s health or lack thereof. The nurse is

referring to the framework of determinants of health in one client’s situation as a

teaching example. Which of the following aspects of this client’s situation most likely

exists outside the framework of determinants of health?

A) The client has had difficulty finding a family doctor.

B) The client has a family history of cardiovascular disease.

C) The client has a graduate degree from a renowned university.

D) The client lives in an affluent, clean, suburban community.

2. A physician is providing care for a number of patients on a medical unit of a large

university hospital. The physician is discussing with a colleague the differentiation

between diseases that are caused by abnormal molecules and molecules that cause

disease. Which of the following patients most clearly demonstrates the consequences

of molecules that cause disease?

A) A 31-year-old woman with sickle cell disease who is receiving a transfusion of

packed red blood cells

B) A 91-year-old woman who has experienced an ischemic stroke resulting from

familial hypercholesterolemia

C) A 19-year-old man with exacerbation of his cystic fibrosis requiring oxygen

therapy and chest physiotherapy

D) A 30-year-old homeless man who has pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

and is HIV positive

3. A member of the health-care team is researching the etiology and pathogenesis of a

number of clients who are under her care in a hospital context. Which of the

following aspects of clients’ situations best characterizes pathogenesis rather than

etiology?

A) A client who has been exposed to the mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium

B) A client who has increasing serum ammonia levels due to liver cirrhosis

C) A client who was admitted with the effects of methyl alcohol poisoning

D) A client with multiple skeletal injuries secondary to a motor vehicle accident

4. A 77-year-old man is a hospital inpatient admitted for exacerbation of his chronic

obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and a respiratory therapist (RT) is assessing

the client for the first time. Which of the following aspects of the patient’s current

state of health would be best characterized as a symptom rather than a sign?

A) The patient’s oxygen saturation is 83% by pulse oximetry.

B) The patient notes that he has increased work of breathing when lying supine.

C) The RT hears diminished breath sounds to the patient’s lower lung fields

bilaterally.

D) The patient’s respiratory rate is 31 breaths per minute.

Page 1

5. The laboratory technologists are discussing a new blood test that helps establish a

differential diagnosis between shortness of breath with a cardiac etiology and

shortness of breath with a respiratory/pulmonary etiology. A positive result is

purported to indicate a cardiac etiology. The marketers of the test report that 99.8%

of patients who have confirmed cardiac etiologies test positive in the test. However,

1.3 percent of patients who do not have cardiac etiologies for their shortness of

breath also test positive. Which of the following statements best characterizes this

blood test?

A) Low validity, high reliability

B) High sensitivity, low specificity

C) High specificity, low reliability

D) High sensitivity, low reliability

6. As part of a screening program for prostate cancer, men at a senior citizens’ centre

are having their blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measured. Which of

the following statements would best characterize high positive predictive value but

low negative predictive value for this screening test?

A) All of the men who had high PSA levels developed prostate cancer; several men

who had low PSA levels also developed prostate cancer.

B) All of the men who had low PSA levels were cancer free; several men who had

high levels also remained free of prostate cancer.

C) Men who had low PSA levels also displayed false-positive results for prostate

cancer; men with high levels were often falsely diagnosed with prostate cancer.

D) The test displayed low sensitivity but high specificity.

7. A particular disease has a debilitating effect on the ability of sufferers to perform their

activities of daily living and is a significant cause of decreased quality of life.

However, few people die as a result of the disease’s direct effects. There are hundreds

of thousands of Canadians living with the disease but relatively few new cases in

recent years. Which of the following statements best conveys an accurate

epidemiological characterization of the disease?

A) Low mortality, high morbidity, low prevalence, high incidence

B) Low mortality, high morbidity, high incidence, low prevalence

C) High mortality, low morbidity, high incidence, low prevalence

D) High morbidity, low mortality, high prevalence, low incidence

Page 2

8. An epidemiologist is conducting a program of research aimed at identifying factors

associated with incidence and prevalence of congenital cardiac defects in infants. The

researcher has recruited a large number of mothers whose infants were born with

cardiac defects, as well as mothers whose infants were born with healthy hearts. The

researcher is comparing the nutritional habits of all the mothers while their babies

were in utero. Which of the following types of studies is the epidemiologist most

likely conducting?

A) Cohort study

B) Cross-sectional study

C) Case-control study

D) Risk-factor study

9. A multidisciplinary health-care team operates a program aimed at the prevention,

identification, and treatment of diabetes in a rural community. Which of the following

aspects of the program would be most likely to be classified as secondary prevention?

A) Regularly scheduled wound-dressing changes for clients who have foot ulcers

secondary to peripheral neuropathy and impaired wound healing

B) Teaching schoolchildren how a nutritious, traditional diet can lessen their

chances of developing adult-onset diabetes

C) Staffing a booth where community residents who are attending a baseball

tournament can have their blood-glucose levels checked

D) Administering oral antihyperglycemic medications to clients who have a

diagnosis of diabetes

10. An occupational therapist conducts a group therapy program called MindWorks with

older adults who have diagnoses of dementia and Alzheimer disease. The goal of the

group is to slow the cognitive decline of clients by engaging them in regular,

organized mental activity, such as reading maps and solving puzzles. How would the

program most likely be characterized?

A) Primary prevention

B) Secondary prevention

C) Tertiary prevention

D) Prognosis enhancement

11. The clinical educator of a hospital medical unit has the mandate of establishing

evidence-based practice guidelines for the nursing care on the unit. Which of the

following statements most accurately captures a guiding principle of the nurse’s task?

A) Evidence-based practice guidelines will be rooted in research rather than nurses’

subjective practice preferences and experiences.

B) Guidelines are synonymous with systematic research reviews.

C) The need for continuity and standardization of guidelines will mean that they will

be fixed rather than changeable.

D) The guidelines will combine individual expertise with external systematic

evidence.

Page 3

12. An understanding of pathophysiology is crucial for providing adequate care for your

future patients. To best understand the study of pathophysiology, you must have a

clear understanding of the term itself. Of the definitions below, which one best

describes the term pathophysiology?

A) The physiology of altered health

B) Any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any

part, organ, or system of the body

C) Causes of disease

D) Changes in structure or form that is characteristic of a disease

13. A physician’s assistant (PA) is examining a 21-year-old college student that is

exhibiting the classic symptoms of schizophrenia. In the course of her evaluation the

PA begins developing a treatment strategy based on what she knows about the

disease, available therapies, and medications. She also makes the patient aware of the

consequences of not following the treatment regimen. To accomplish this, what

aspect of the disease is the PA using?

A) Etiology

B) Causation

C) Natural history

D) Morbidity statistics

14. While you are working on a case, your patient dies, and you are charged with filling

out the death certificate. In performing this task, you are required to record age, sex,

cause of death, and socieoeconomic status, among other factors. What is the purpose

of reporting these statistics?

A) These statistics are recorded so pharmaceutical companies may compile the data

to determine future need.

B) These statistics are useful for the government to update tax records.

C) These statistics are useful in terms of anticipating health-care needs, planning

public-education programs, directing health research efforts, and allocating

health-care dollars.

D) These statistics are useful in ranking the efficiency of hospitals and clinics.

15. The Framingham Heart Study is one of the most well-known studies carried out to

date. Clinicians use the information obtained from the study to predict outcomes of

patients with coronary disease. What type of study was this?

A) Repetition

B) Double-blind placebo

C) Case-control

D) Cohort

Page 4

16. Your patient has already suffered a heart attack and is placed on -blockers to reduce

the workload on the heart, as well as a statin drug and a low-fat diet to lower

cholesterol. This treatment plan is based on multiple levels; one is diet and statin

therapy, and the other is the use of -blockers. Assign the level of prevention each of

these therapies can be classified as.

A) Primary, secondary

B) Secondary, tertiary

C) Primary, tertiary

D) Secondary, primary

Page 5

Answer Key

1. C

2. D

3. B

4. B

5. B

6. A

7. D

8. C

9. C

10. C

11. D

12. A

13. C

14. C

15. D

16. C

Page 6

pathophysiology porth 8th edition test bank