Professional Nursing, Concepts & Challenges 8th edition Test Bank Black

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  • Published: 2016
  • ISBN-13: 978-0323431125
  • ISBN-10: 0323431127

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professional nursing concepts & challenges 8th edition test bank black

Chapter 02: The History and Social Contexts of Nursing

Black: Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.Which early nursing leader founded the first training school for nurses that would later become a model for early nursing education?

a.Dorothea Dix
b.Florence Nightingale
c.Clara Barton
d.Mary Ann Bickerdyke

ANS: B

Feedback
ADorothea Dix is best known as an advocate for the mentally ill, and she created a brief training program at two New York hospitals for women who wished to serve as nurses in the Civil War.
BFlorence Nightingale founded the first training school for nurses at St. Thomas’s Hospital in London in 1806. This became the model for nursing education in the United States.
CClara Barton is known for founding the American Red Cross.
DMary Ann Bickerdyke is best known for nursing services during the Civil War.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 26

2.Who was the first educated African-American professional nurse?

a.Linda Richards
b.Phoebe Pember
c.Sojourner Truth
d.Mary Eliza Mahoney

ANS: D

Feedback
ALinda Richards was the first trained nurse in the United States.
BPhoebe Pember was one of the first women placed in charge of a hospital.
CSojourner Truth was a famous abolitionist who served as a nurse for the Union forces in the Civil War.
DMary Eliza Mahoney was the first African-American professional nurse; she was educated at the New England Hospital for Women and Children.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 28

3.To which early nursing leader is attributed the founding of the American Red Cross?

a.Clara Barton
b.Dorothea Dix
c.Florence Nightingale
d.Lavinia Lloyd Dock

ANS: A

Feedback
AFounding the American Red Cross is attributed to Clara Barton.
BDorothea Dix was superintendent of women nurses of the Union Army.
CFlorence Nightingale was an English pioneer in nursing.
DLavinia Lloyd Dock was influential in forming the National League for Nursing (NLN).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 28

4.What were some of the application requirements of nursing education programs in the 1900s?

a.Male, intelligent, strong
b.Female, sensitive, subservient
c.Female, docile, from poor background
d.Male, high breeding, independent

ANS: B

Feedback
AMen were not thought to be sensitive enough for nursing.
BSensitivity, breeding, intelligence, ladylike behavior, and submission to authority were highly desired personal traits for nursing students.
CHigh breeding was desirable for nursing education program applicants.
DMen were not desired nursing education program applicants.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 28

5.Which of the following statements best describes how the Chicago World’s Fair of 1893 became a pivotal point in the history of nursing education in the United States?

a.Florence Nightingale’s work on sanitation and its relationship to mortality rates was finally recognized.
b.The organization today known as the NLN was formed to address issues in nursing education.
c.The American Nurses Association (ANA) was formed to oversee nursing education in the United States.
d.The International Council of Nurses (ICN) was formed to enhance collaboration between practicing nurses and educators.

ANS: B

Feedback
AFlorence Nightingale’s paper was on scientific training of nurses.
BSeveral influential nursing leaders met at the Chicago World’s Fair and started the National League for Nursing Education—the precursor to the NLN.
CThe NLN, not the ANA, was formed to oversee nursing education in the United States.
DThe ICN was not founded until 1899 and is not involved in U.S. education of nurses.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 29

6.Which early nursing organization is credited with first recommending state registration for nurses?

a.ICN
b.NLN
c.ANA
d.National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses

ANS: A

Feedback
AThe ICN was formed to unite all nursing organizations. The topic of the first meeting was registration for nurses by each country and state.
BThe NLN was formed to oversee nursing education in the United States.
CThe ANA was formed to enhance collaboration between practicing nurses and educators.
DThe National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses was formed to develop leadership among African-American nurses.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 32

7.Which of the following nursing leaders, because of her work in the Henry Street Settlement, is considered the founder of public health nursing?

a.Margaret Sanger
b.Clara Barton
c.Lillian Wald
d.Lavinia Lloyd Dock

ANS: C

Feedback
AMargaret Sanger is known for her work on birth control with immigrant women from the Lower East Side of New York City.
BClara Barton founded the American Red Cross.
CLillian Wald founded the Henry Street Settlement, the first formalized public health nursing project.
DLavinia Lloyd Dock was instrumental in the formation of the NLN.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 30

8.Despite the caring efforts of early public health nurses in the Henry Street Settlement, racial disparity left many people underserved. Which of the following African-American public health nurses was instrumental in providing excellent nursing care to underserved families despite these social challenges?

a.Jessie Sleet Scales
b.Margaret Sanger
c.Lavinia Lloyd Dock
d.Anita M. McGee

ANS: A

Feedback
AJessie Sleet Scales established the Stillman House, a part of the Henry Street Settlement that provided care to African Americans.
BMargaret Sanger worked to provide immigrant women on the Lower East Side of New York City with birth control information.
CLavinia Lloyd Dock founded the NLN.
DAnita M. McGee was a physician appointed as head of the Hospital Corps, who recruited nurses for the Spanish-American War of 1898.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 31

9.Which one of the following events occurring during the first decade of the 20th century brought sweeping changes to nursing?

a.It was required that all practicing nurses be licensed.
b.Permissive licensing laws allowed registered nurses (RNs) to practice without a license if they registered with the state.
c.All states required a standardized licensing examination.
d.Nurses had to pass a licensing examination to use the title RN.

ANS: D

Feedback
APracticing nurses did not have to be licensed but could not use the title RN.
BPermissive licensing laws required all nurses using the title RN to be licensed.
CLicensing examinations were not standardized until 1950.
DLicensure laws were passed that required all people using the title of RN to be licensed.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 32

10.What was the most significant impact on the profession of nursing made by Mary Breckenridge in her role as a frontier nurse?

a.She demonstrated that nurses could provide primary care in rural settings.
b.She demonstrated that female nurses could protect themselves in unsettled rural environments.
c.She demonstrated that nurses were capable of teaching new mothers to care for babies.
d.She demonstrated that nurses could provide care to many clients despite geographic boundaries.

ANS: A

Feedback
AMary Breckenridge established frontier nursing services. She provided primary care to women and babies and demonstrated that nurses could provide primary care.
BSafety was not the primary impact of the success of frontier nursing.
CAlthough she was a nurse-midwife, this was not the most significant impact.
DDemonstrating that nurses could provide care to many clients despite geographic boundaries was not the most significant impact made by Mary Breckenridge.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 33

11.Which of the following trends in health care delivery that began in the second half of the 20th century continues today?

a.Widespread use of team nursing to address the nursing shortage
b.Massive movement of nurses out of acute care and into home care
c.Advent of primary care to replace specialized care
d.Provision of care to the poor, elderly, and disabled through Medicare and Medicaid

ANS: D

Feedback
ATeam nursing is rarely used today.
BMore nurses work in acute care today than in home care.
CAfter World War II, specialization became popular.
DTwo amendments to the Social Security Act in 1965 designed to ensure access to health care for elderly, poor, and disabled Americans were the establishment of Medicare and Medicaid.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 34

12.A recent trend in nursing has been an increase in the number of men and women with degrees in other fields or other careers applying to nursing programs. What is the single most important reason for this trend?

a.Nursing as a career has gained increased status and prestige.
b.Nursing salaries have outpaced many other fields.
c.A nursing career provides both job security and meaningful employment.
d.Working conditions in nursing have improved.

ANS: C

Feedback
AWhile true, nursing’s increased status and prestige is not a significant factor in the trend of people choosing it as a second career.
BSalary is not a major factor.
CThe current appeal to men and women with degrees in other fields is that nursing can provide job opportunities, economic security, and the opportunity to help others.
DWorking conditions are not identified as a reason for choosing a second career in nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 40

13.What specialty of nursing was considered well suited for men at a time when other areas were excluding men from practicing?

a.Obstetric nursing
b.Pediatric nursing
c.Psychiatric nursing
d.Nurse educator

ANS: C

Feedback
AObstetric nursing was not considered an appropriate area for men in nursing.
BPediatric nursing was not considered an appropriate area for men in nursing.
CPsychiatric nursing was considered well suited for men because it required physical stamina and strength.
DEducation was not a specialty considered well suited for men in nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 38

14.When surveyed, what is the primary reason given by men for entering nursing?

a.To make a difference
b.High salaries
c.Flexible schedules
d.Opportunity for travel

ANS: A

Feedback
AMen who want to make a difference in peoples’ lives find nursing an appealing career choice
BEconomic and job security are important factors for men entering nursing, but more significant is the opportunity to make a difference in peoples’ lives.
CFlexible schedules, where provided, are an attractive incentive for employment, but that is not as significant as being able to make a difference in peoples’ lives.
DOpportunity for travel is available for travel and military nurses, otherwise it is not an important aspect of nursing as a career.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 39

15.What was the purpose of the Hill-Burton Act?

a.It established funding for the construction of hospitals.
b.It provided women in the service with military rank.
c.It established and funded the Frontier Nursing Service.
d.It created the Cadet Nurse Corps.

ANS: A

Feedback
AThe 1946 Hill-Burton Act provided funding for the construction of hospitals.
BCongress passed a bill in 1920 that allowed women to hold military rank.
CThe Frontier Nursing Service, originally known as the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies, was established by Mary Breckinridge.
DThe Cadet Nurse Corps was an alliance between military and collegiate nursing programs to train nurses and was funded by Congress.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 34

16.When surveyed, which profession was chosen by the general public as highest in honesty and ethics?

a.Physician
b.Pharmacist
c.Nurse
d.Attorney

ANS: C

Feedback
APhysicians were not ranked over nurses.
BPharmacists were not ranked over nurses.
CGallup polls from 1999 to 2010 rated nursing as the top profession in honesty and ethics.
DAttorneys were not ranked over nurses in honesty and ethics.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 41

17.In 2002 which major American corporation partnered with nursing to design a media campaign to promote the image of nursing?

a.Johnson & Johnson
b.Baxter
c.Microsoft
d.Wal-Mart

ANS: A

Feedback
AIn 2003 Johnson & Johnson began a $20 million campaign—Campaign for Nursing’s Future—to enhance the image of nursing, to recruit new nurses and educators, and to retain nurses.
BBaxter did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing.
CMicrosoft did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing.
DWal-Mart did not launch a media campaign to promote the image of nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 41

18.A shift in population growth is expected to place stress on nursing resources. Which age-group is expected to experience the greatest population growth in the next decade?

a.Older than 85 years of age
b.75 to 85 years of age
c.35 to 65 years of age
d.18 to 35 years of age

ANS: A

Feedback
APeople older than 85 years, known as the “very old,” represent the fastest-growing segment of the total population.
BAlthough the 75 to 85 age-group is growing, it is not the fastest-growing segment of the population.
CThe group of individuals 35 to 65 years of age is not expected to grow as dramatically as is the group termed “very old.”
DThe 18 to 35 age-group is not expected to be the fastest-growing segment of the population in the next decade.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 44

19.In which practice area was the first clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role developed?

a.Mother-baby
b.Psychiatric nursing
c.Intensive care nursing
d.Emergency nursing

ANS: B

Feedback
AThe first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the 1960s.
BThe first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the 1960s.
CThe first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the 1960s.
DThe first CNS role was developed in psychiatric nursing in the 1960s.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 35

20.Which of the following was an unsuccessful attempt by the American Medical Association (AMA) to alleviate the nursing shortage of the time?

a.Creation of the nurse manager position
b.Creation of the registered care technician
c.Recruitment of RNs from English-speaking countries
d.Redistribution of qualified nurses to certain geographic locations

ANS: B

Feedback
AThe nurse manager position was not created by the AMA.
BIn response to the nursing shortage in the late 1980s, the AMA proposed a nurse extender called the registered care technician.
CThe recruitment of foreign nurses was not a proposal of the AMA.
DTravel nursing was not a proposal of the AMA.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 48

21.The first trained nurse in the United States graduated in 1873 and later became the supervisor of the Boston Training School. Who was this nurse?

a.Mary Ann Bickerdyke
b.Dorothea Dix
c.Linda Richards
d.Sallie Thompkins

ANS: C

Feedback
AMary Ann Bickerdyke was an uneducated widow who organized the camp hospital in Cairo, Illinois, during the Civil War.
BDorothea Dix, a well-known advocate for the mentally ill, was instrumental in creating a month-long training program in two New York hospitals to train women wishing to serve in the Civil War.
CIn 1872 Linda Richards became the first student to enroll in the inaugural class of five students in the first American nurses’ training school run by Dr. Susan Dimock. She graduated 1 year later.
DSallie Thompkins established a hospital in Richmond, Virginia, and was commissioned a “captain of Cavalry, unassigned” by Confederate President Jefferson Davis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 28

22.During the Great Depression, staffing of hospitals changed with an impact lasting to the current day. What was this change?

a.The employment of graduate nurses in hospitals
b.The need for increased private duty nurses and rural health nurses decreased the number of nurses seeking employment in hospitals
c.The opening of more schools of nursing in hospitals
d.The increased number of collegiate schools of nursing, which allowed hospitals to increase the educational requirements for the staff

ANS: A

Feedback
AHospitals were forced to close their schools of nursing; families were no longer able to afford private duty nurses in their homes; and hospitals hired the unemployed graduate nurses to care for the increased numbers of patients seeking care in hospitals.
BAlthough there was a need for nurses in rural areas supported by the Civil Works Administration, the number of private duty nurses decreased due to the inability of families to afford them.
CFor economical reasons, hospitals could not afford to fund schools of nursing.
DAlthough the number of collegiate schools increased, most nurses in hospitals were prepared in diploma programs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 34

23.What was the most important influence of war on nursing?

a.It allowed for the development of hospitals.
b.Nurses were able to perform medical procedures during war.
c.Improved medical care increased soldiers’ survival rates.
d.It provided for the creation of new technology to make work easier.

ANS: B

Feedback
AWars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs during wartime.
BWars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs during wartime.
CWars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs during wartime.
DWars allowed nurses to stretch the boundaries of their profession. Nurses have led the way in furthering their discipline by responding to needs during wartime.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 35

24.Florence Nightingale is often credited as being the first nurse researcher. This designation is based on

a.her methods of reorganizing British hospitals.
b.her use of data on the morbidity and mortality of soldiers in hospitals in Scutari.
c.demonstration that trained nurses provided better nursing care.
d.publication of Notes on Nursing, the first scholarly nursing publication.

ANS: B

Feedback
AAlthough Nightingale reformed both the British Army and British civilian hospitals on the basis of data she collected, the reformations were not researched.
BNightingale was educated in statistics and used the detailed data collected to effectively argue the case for the reform of the British Army hospital system.
CNightingale founded the first training school after she had gained fame based on the hospital reforms supported by her data collection during the Crimean War.
DThe publication reflected Nightingale’s philosophical thoughts on nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 26

25.The nursing profession is responsible for improving its own image. The most effective avenue for changing the image of nursing is to

a.write letters expressing concerns to those responsible for negative images on television and in films.
b.have nurses as consultants to the media to ensure that the media producers have accurate information about nursing.
c.have nurses appear and behave professionally and explain what nurses do in each patient interaction.
d.support the Johnson & Johnson campaign by distributing their information about nursing to students interested in nursing.

ANS: C

Feedback
AWhile appropriate, writing letters to professionals in television and film is not the most effective avenue for changing the image of nursing.
BWhile appropriate, having nursing consultants to the media is not the most effective avenue for changing the image of nursing.
CThe major avenue for changing the image of nursing occurs one nurse-patient encounter at a time, where nurses look and behave professionally and demonstrate what it is nurses do.
DWhile supporting Johnson & Johnson’s Campaign for Nursing’s Future is appropriate, it is not the most effective avenue for changing the image of nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 41

26.The diversity of the population entering the health care system is a challenge for nurses because

a.the portion of minorities in nursing is greater than the portion of minorities in the general population.
b.educators are culturally competent leaders for nurses and students.
c.lessons about culture and cultural differences are not part of progressive education programs.
d.ethnic minority nurses do not yet meet the same proportions in the profession as in the general population.

ANS: D

Feedback
AOnly 12% of nurses are minorities, but approximately 31% of the general population is identified as a minority.
BManagers, educators, and other nursing leaders will require training so they can be culturally competent leaders for nurses and students who may have backgrounds different from their own.
CCulture and cultural differences are part of progressive education programs. However, understanding of health and illness in the context of cultural heritage is not consistently addressed in the health care system.
DMinority nurses are underrepresented in nursing. This might make it difficult for patients who identify as ethnic minorities to feel comfortable or confident with the health care system.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 46

27.Biomedical technology involves the use of complex machines or devices in patient care situations. Because of the highly technological environment in which nurses work, it is important that nurses

a.assume total responsibility for monitoring data generated by these devices.
b.use human touch and words of reassurance frequently to convey caring.
c.maintain the device’s safety by assuring routine assessment by physicians.
d.be careful not to frighten the patient and family with information about the device.

ANS: B

Feedback
AThe monitoring and safety of machines and devices are most often the responsibility of nurses and technicians.
BThe use of technology needs to be combined with caring to maintain patient and family satisfaction. Technology must never take the place of human-to-human contact.
CThe monitoring and safety of machines and devices are most often the responsibility of nurses and technicians.
DThe patient and family need information about the use of the device, as well as the meaning of the information produced, to decrease stress and anxiety.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 47

28.Margaret Sanger, as a nurse and activist, worked on the Lower East Side of New York City in the early 1900s with immigrant women. What was the focus of her work?

a.Sanitation to prevent disease transmission
b.Health education for children
c.Providing nursing care to underserved African-American families
d.Safe contraception and family planning for women

ANS: D

Feedback
ASanitation to prevent disease transmission may have been part of her work in her early years, but Sanger devoted her life to the birth control movement and became a national figure in that cause.
BHealth education for children may have been part of her work in her early years, but Sanger devoted her life to the birth control movement and became a national figure in that cause.
CProviding nursing care to underserved African-American families may have been part of her work in her early years, but Sanger devoted her life to the birth control movement and became a national figure in that cause.
DMargaret Sanger, inspired by the death of an immigrant woman from a self-attempted abortion, became determined to teach women about birth control.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 31

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1.Nursing practices during the Civil War advanced the cause of professional nursing. The move toward formal education and training was supported by (Select all that apply.)

a.endorsement by the Catholic nursing orders (Sisters of Charity, Sisters of Mercy, and Sisters of the Holy Cross).
b.a proposal by Dr. Samuel Gross in 1869 that large hospitals develop training schools for nurses.
c.reports of inadequate conditions in hospitals reported by social reformers after the Civil War.
d.lobbying by the United States Sanitary Commission for the creation of nursing schools.
e.the appointment of Dorothea Dix as Superintendent of Women Nurses of the (Union) Army.

ANS: B, C, D, E

Feedback
CorrectThe proposal by Dr. Samuel Gross in 1869 that large hospitals develop training schools for nurses; reports of inadequate conditions in hospitals reported by social reformers after the Civil War; and lobbying by the United States Sanitary Commission for the creation of nursing schools all led toward formal education and training for nursing practices. Support for the development of schools to train nurses was given by physicians who had observed the difference training made in hospitals during the war, as well as by the U.S. Sanitary Commission. Social reformation that started before the Civil War identified the shocking conditions in hospitals. Dorothea Dix created a month-long training program for women who wished to serve as nurses in the Civil War.
Incorrect“Endorsement by the Catholic nursing orders (Sisters of Charity, Sisters of Mercy, and Sisters of the Holy Cross)” is incorrect because, although the Catholic nursing orders provided significant organized nursing care during the war, even they did not develop formal education programs until later.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 27-28

2.Historically, one solution that attempted to correct the shortage of RNs was to increase the supply of nurses. Means of increasing the supply of nurses included (Select all that apply.)

a.implementation of team nursing.
b.use of “traveling nurses.”
c.development of associate degree programs.
d.importation of nurses from English-speaking countries.
e.use of registered care technicians.

ANS: B, C, D

Feedback
Correct“Use of traveling nurses,” “development of associate degree programs,” and “importation of nurses from English-speaking countries” are correct because all have been used to increase the numbers of practicing nurses.
Incorrect“Implementation of team nursing” is incorrect because although the implementation of team nursing was intended to improve nurse availability, it did not increase the number of nurses. Registered care technicians were “nurse extenders” proposed by the AMA to ease the shortage, but this solution was quickly defeated.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 48

3.Provisions of the Affordable Care Act include (Select all that apply.)

a.lifetime limits of catastrophic care insurance will cover.
b.children up to age 26 being allowed to stay on parents’ insurance.
c.disallowing denial of coverage for children and teens’ preexisting conditions.
d.the right to appeal coverage decisions.
e.recommended preventative services without out-of-pocket cost to consumers.

ANS: B, C, D, E

Feedback
CorrectProvisions of the Affordable Care Act include no lifetime limits on insurance coverage, allowing children up to age 26 to stay on their parents’ insurance plan, banning the practice of denying coverage for children and teens with preexisting conditions, and a recommendation for preventative services to be covered with no out-of-pocket cost for the consumer.
IncorrectThe Affordable Care Act does not place lifetime limits on covering catastrophic care.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 37

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